Presentation on theme: "Social Cognition: How We Think About the Social World"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Cognition: How We Think About the Social World Chapter 3Social Cognition:How We Think About the Social World
2Chapter OutlineI. On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking
3On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Social cognition is the study of how people select, interpret, and use information to make judgments about themselves and the social world.
4On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People use mental shortcuts to simplify the amount of information they receive from the environment.
5On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Social cognition is pragmatic, adopting different procedures depending on the person’s goals and needs in a situation.
6On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with SchemasSchemas are mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects: schemas affect what information we notice, think about, and remember.
7On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with SchemasSchemas act as filters, screening out information that is inconsistent with them. Although we may notice and remember glaring exceptions, usually we attend only to schema-consistent information.
8On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with SchemasAccessibility: the ease with which schemas can be brought to mind.Priming: the process by which recent experiences make schemas, traits, or concepts come to mind more readily.
9On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People as Everyday Theorists: Automatic Thinking with SchemasPerseverance effect: the tendency for people’s beliefs about themselves and their world to persist even when those beliefs are discredited.
10On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking People as Everyday Theorists: Schemas and Their InfluenceSelf-fulfilling prophecy: whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave in a way consistent with the original expectation.
11On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Mental Strategies and ShortcutsJudgmental heuristics are mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently.
12On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Mental Strategies and ShortcutsThe availability heuristic is a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind.
13On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Mental Strategies and ShortcutsThe representativeness heuristic is a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case.Base rate information is information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population. It usually is not considered when people are using mental shortcuts.
14On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking Mental Strategies and ShortcutsThe anchoring and adjustment heuristic is a mental shortcut that involves using a number or value as a starting point, and then adjusting one’s answer away from this anchor.One example of anchoring and adjustment is biased sampling, whereby people make generalizations from samples of information they know are biased or atypical.
15Chapter OutlineII. Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking
16Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking Controlled thinking is conscious, voluntary, and effortful unlike automatic thinking which is nonconscious, effortless, and involuntary.
17Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking The Motivated Social ThinkerIn many studies, people make judgments that are of little importance to them. When the importance is increased, people may use more sophisticated strategies, are more accurate, and are more likely to notice facts that conflict with their schemas.
18Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking Ironic Processing and Thought SuppressionBeing preoccupied reduces our ability to engage in thought suppression, or the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would just as soon forget.
19Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking Ironic Processing and Thought SuppressionAccording to Wegner, thought suppression depends on two processes: “monitoring” (searching for evidence that the unwanted thought is about to intrude) and “operating process” (finding a distraction).
20Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking Counterfactual thinking is mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been.
21Chapter OutlineIII. A Portrayal of Social Thinking
22A Portrayal of Human Thinking People as “flawed scientists”: Though people are brilliant thinkers, they are often blind to truths that don’t fit their theories and sometimes even treat others in ways that make their theories come true.
24Improving Human Thinking Teaching Reasoning SkillsOften we have more confidence in our judgements than we should. To try to improve reasoning skills, we need to break through this overconfidence barrier and make people more aware of the limits of their cognitive abilities.
25Study QuestionsWhat is social cognition? What do researchers in this area study?
26Study QuestionsWhat are the advantages of automatic thinking? When is this type of thinking problematic?
27Study QuestionsWhy are schemas so important to study? What role do they play in people’s understanding and interpretations of themselves and the social world? What are examples of cognitive processes that are influenced by schemas?
28Study QuestionsWhat functions do schemas serve? Why does their use sometimes have adaptive value? How is their use maladaptive? How do accessibility and priming affect schema use?
29Study QuestionsWhat is the relationship between schemas and the perseverance effect?
30Study QuestionsWhy does the self-fulfilling prophecy occur? What function does it serve? How can it affect resistance to schema change?
31Study QuestionsHow do cultures influence schema content?
32Study QuestionsWhy do people use judgmental heuristics? What are three heuristics that people use to make judgments? When people rely on these heuristics what kind of information are they not taking into account?
33Study QuestionsWhat are the effects of motivation on judgment formation? How is automatic thinking different from controlled thinking? What effects does cognitive load have on these two types of thinking?
34Study QuestionsHow do automatic processing and controlled processing interact to allow for successful thought suppression?
35Study QuestionsWhat is the relationship between the occurrence of counterfactual thinking and emotional reactions to events?
36Study QuestionsWhat is perhaps the best metaphor for the social thinker? Why?
37Study QuestionsWhat can we teach people so that they overcome the overconfidence barrier and increase their reasoning ability?