Without looking at it, try to describe your watch: what color is the face what marks the hours what color are the hands is there a second hand does it say anything on the face
Assumptions of Human Information Processing Some learning processes are unique to humans Mental events are the focus of study The study of human learning must be objective and scientific Individuals are actively involved in the learning process Learning involves the formation of mental associations that are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes Knowledge is organized Learning is a process of relating new information to previously learned information
Terminology Cognitive Process- any internal mental event and includes such phenomena as perceiving, attention, interpretation, understanding and remembering Learning vs. Memory - learning is viewed as the acquisition of new information. Memory is related to the ability to recall information that has been previously learned Storage - the process by which new information is placed in memory Retrieval - the process by which people “find’ the information they have previously stored so they can use it again Encoding - the process by which information is modified before it is stored - often helps storage
Dual-Store Model of Memory- Atkinson-Shiffrin model input lost lost? Sensory Register Short-term Memory Long-term Memory
Sensory Register capacity form of storage duration
The Role of Attention the process by which people select some of the environmental input they receive for further cognitive processing
Factors Influencing Attention Size Intensity Novelty Incongruity Emotion Personal Significance Competition between similar tasks
Which letters first draw your attention? a B c D
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Incongruity I took a walk to the rabbit this morning.
Are STM and LTM Really Different? Consider: acoustic vs. semantic memories brain injury patients changes due to aging
Metacognition/ Executive Control people’s knowledge of their own learning, cognitive processes and their regulation of those processes to enhance learning and memory. Also known as thinking about thinking.
Implications for Instruction Encourage multiple representations for encoding Organize information to maximize retrieval Support metacognition Link new material to prior knowledge Minimize interference Recognize STM limitations