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Instructional Technology 6260 Cognitive Information Processing Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Technology 6260 Cognitive Information Processing Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Technology 6260 Cognitive Information Processing Theory

2 Cognitive Information Processing  Without looking at one, draw a picture of a penny


4  Without looking at it, try to describe your watch:  what color is the face  what marks the hours  what color are the hands  is there a second hand  does it say anything on the face

5 Assumptions of Human Information Processing  Some learning processes are unique to humans  Mental events are the focus of study  The study of human learning must be objective and scientific  Individuals are actively involved in the learning process  Learning involves the formation of mental associations that are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes  Knowledge is organized  Learning is a process of relating new information to previously learned information

6 Terminology  Cognitive Process- any internal mental event and includes such phenomena as perceiving, attention, interpretation, understanding and remembering  Learning vs. Memory - learning is viewed as the acquisition of new information. Memory is related to the ability to recall information that has been previously learned  Storage - the process by which new information is placed in memory  Retrieval - the process by which people “find’ the information they have previously stored so they can use it again  Encoding - the process by which information is modified before it is stored - often helps storage

7 Dual-Store Model of Memory- Atkinson-Shiffrin model input lost lost? Sensory Register Short-term Memory Long-term Memory

8 Sensory Register  capacity  form of storage  duration

9 The Role of Attention  the process by which people select some of the environmental input they receive for further cognitive processing

10 What do you see?????

11 Factors Influencing Attention  Size  Intensity  Novelty  Incongruity  Emotion  Personal Significance  Competition between similar tasks

12 Which letters first draw your attention? a B c D

13 Read the Italics Print...  Somewhere Among hidden the in most the spectacular Rocky Mountains cognitive near abilities Central City is Colorado the an ability old to miner select hid one a message box from of another gold. We Although do several this hundred by people focusing have our looked attention for on it, certain they cues have such not as found type it style.

14 Incongruity  I took a walk to the rabbit this morning.

15 Processes Underlying Attention  selective attention  automaticity  bottleneck effect

16 Short-term Memory  capacity  storage form  duration

17 Example 1. Memorize in sequence: 808810844033542 How many right? 15-1211-8 7-44-1

18 Example 2. Memorize in sequence: 435797100084322 How many right? 15-1211-8 7-44-1

19 Control Processes in STM  Chunking  Rehearsal  Retrieval

20 Long-Term Memory  Capacity  Form of Storage  Duration

21 Control Processes in LTM  Storage  Retrieval

22 Are STM and LTM Really Different? Consider:  acoustic vs. semantic memories  brain injury patients  changes due to aging

23 Metacognition/ Executive Control  people’s knowledge of their own learning, cognitive processes and their regulation of those processes to enhance learning and memory. Also known as thinking about thinking.

24 Implications for Instruction  Encourage multiple representations for encoding  Organize information to maximize retrieval  Support metacognition  Link new material to prior knowledge  Minimize interference  Recognize STM limitations

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