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The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe IR 2001 International Organisations in Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe IR 2001 International Organisations in Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe IR 2001 International Organisations in Europe

2 OSCE: Questions Under what conditions was the CSCE created? What were the objectives of the CSCE? How did the CSCE encapsulate the changing nature of security? What is the role of the OSCE following the end of the Cold War? Does it have a part to play in the so-called War on Terror?

3 OSCE Sources OSCE Fact Book Galbreath 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007 OSCE web sources Field Missions Institutions Budgets, etc...

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5 OSCE and European Security The mandate for regional security institutions is established in the UN Charter, Chapter VIII.

6 OSCE and European Security The OSCE begins with a non-traditional approach to the concept of security. Common Security Comprehensive Security

7 OSCE and European Security The rationale behind the OSCE: Participating states have a common stake in the security of Europe and should therefore co-operate to prevent crises getting worse. The underlying assumption is that co-operation can bring benefits to all participating States, while insecurity in one state can affect the well-being of all.

8 OSCE and European Security Decisions by the OSCE are not legally binding, that is they do not enter into international law. However, OSCE decisions are politically important.

9 OSCE and European Security Contributions to European Security Architecture Epistemic input Quiet diplomacy Focus on national minorities Presence in the field

10 OSCE and European Security OSCE/CSCE: What is the difference? History

11 OSCE and European Security Final Recommendations of the Helsinki Consultations The Helsinki Process

12 OSCE and European Security The CSCE Final Act Decalogue Basket I Basket II

13 OSCE and European Security Helsinki Decalogue 1) Sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty 2) Refraining from the threat or use of force 3) Inviolability of frontiers 4) Territorial integrity of states

14 OSCE and European Security 5) Peaceful settlement of disputes 6) Non-intervention in internal affairs 7) Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. 8) Equal rights and self-determination of peoples 9) Co-operation among States 10) Fulfilment of obligations under international law

15 OSCE and European Security The CSCE Final Act Basket I: politico-military aspects of security, military confidence-building measures, and guiding relationships between states (Helsinki Decalogue)

16 OSCE and European Security The CSCE Final Act Basket II: the co-ordination between member- states concerning such areas as economics, science and technology as well as the environment

17 OSCE and European Security The CSCE Final Act Basket III: Co-operation in humanitarian and other fields Human Rights and Security

18 CSCE: A Unique Institution? Was the CSCE a unique and innovative institution? Wide-membership representing both blocs Comprehensive approach to security Consensual decision-making Decisions were (are) politically binding rather than legally No institutional structure

19 From CSCE to OSCE The Collapse of Communism and end of Cold War Paris Charter for a New Europe (1990) Berlin 1991 and Prague 1992 Helsinki 1992 Budapest Conference 1994

20 From CSCE to OSCE Paris Charter for a New Europe (1990) Addressed the end of the Cold War Regular meetings of Heads of States and Foreign Ministers Permanent administrative infrastructure Director, Secretariat, Conflict Prevention Centre and an Office for Free Elections Decentralised bureaucracy: Prague, Vienna, Warsaw

21 From CSCE to OSCE First Council Meeting Berlin 1991 Berlin Mechanism: emergency consultation Second Council Meeting Prague 1992 Committee of Senior Officials Consensus minus one

22 From CSCE to OSCE Helsinki Follow-up Meeting 1992 Institutionalisation of the CSCE Forum for Security Co-operation High Commissioner on National Minorities Economic Forum Financial Committee of Experts

23 From CSCE to OSCE Budapest Summit 1994 From Conference on… (CSCE) To Organization for… (OSCE)

24 High Commissioner on National Minorities (The Hague) Representative on Freedom of the Media (Vienna) Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (Warsaw) OSCE Field Activities (Various states) Ministerial Councils and Summits OSCE Secretariat (Vienna) Permanent Council (Vienna) Chairman-in-Office Troika (Vienna) Secretary General Action against Terrorism Unit (ATU) Anti-Trafficking Assistance Unit Conflict Prevention Centre (CPC) External Co-operation Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities Gender mainstreaming Strategic Police Matters Unit (SPMU) Training Section Forum for Security Co- operation (Vienna) Operational Structures and InstitutionsDecision-Making Bodies Main OSCE Institutions Source: OSCE About – Institutions (http://www.osce.org/about/13509.html) Economic Forum (Vienna) Parliamentary Assembly (Copenhagen)

25 The OSCE in the Post-Cold War The basic priorities of the OSCE: Democratisation Conflict prevention/resolution Common and comprehensive security

26 OSCE Instruments Fact-finding and rapporteur missions Missions and other field activities Personal representatives of the Chairman- in-Office Ad hoc steering groups Mechanisms for peaceful settlement of disputes Peacekeeping operations

27 OSCE Field Activities Front-line of the OSCE Most visible part of the OSCE From policy to implementation Areas: early warning, preventive diplomacy, conflict management, and post- conflict rehabilitation.

28 Case study: Kosovo July 1999 Objectives Police training Judicial and civil admin Civil society Media development Elections Human rights

29 Case study: Latvia November 1993 Objectives Naturalisation Language Education Employment Integration

30 Case study: Georgia December 1992 Objectives Negotiations between parties Human rights Focus South Ossetia Abkhazia Chechnya

31 Case study: Chechnya April Objectives Conflict-resolution Post-Conflict Rehabilitation Pulled out December 1998

32 Case study: Tajikistan December 1993 Objectives Political reconciliation Confidence-building Democratisation Human rights

33 OSCE and European Security Contributions to European Security Architecture Epistemic input Quiet diplomacy Focus on national minorities Presence in the field

34 Conclusion Under what conditions was the CSCE created? What were the objectives of the CSCE? How did the CSCE encapsulate the changing nature of security? What is the role of the OSCE following the end of the Cold War? Does it have a part to play in the so-called War on Terror?


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