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1 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall James A. Senn’s Information Technology, 3 rd Edition Chapter 10 Launching Information.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall James A. Senn’s Information Technology, 3 rd Edition Chapter 10 Launching Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall James A. Senn’s Information Technology, 3 rd Edition Chapter 10 Launching Information Technology Applications Projects Sumber dari : http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1286/1317068/ppt/ch10_Senn3e.ppt. http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1286/1317068/ppt/ch10_Senn3e.ppt

2 2 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Objectives Describe the origin of IT applications in business and understand why they have become so prominent. Identify the distinguishing characteristics of an IT application. Explain the benefits of IT applications to users and enterprise.

3 3 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall Objectives (Continued) Explain how a systems project begins and how its desirability is determined. Describe the six phases of the systems development life cycle. Explain the importance of continual evaluation and evolution in IT systems.

4 4 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Definition Single-user System/Personal System: An IT system used by only one person. A system that stands alone and is not interconnected with other companies or shared by other people. Enterprise System: Usually involves the same types of components as a personal system, plus server or mainframe, database, and network. It is generally a shared system.

5 5 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Characteristics of Personal Systems Designed for Hands-On Usage –Hands-on System: A system in which a user enters data and information, directs processing, and determines the types of output to be generated. Tailored to Personal Requirements and Preferences Used to Improve Personal Performance

6 6 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Characteristics of Enterprise Systems (Continued) Designed for Shared Use Designed for Sharing Data Resources Designed to Connect a Variety of Users Designed for Larger Size and Scope

7 7 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Characteristics of Personal and Enterprise Systems

8 8 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Impact of IT Applications Improved Productivity –Productivity: The relationship between the results of an activity (output) and the resources used to create those results (inputs). –Personal Productivity Software: Software packages that permit activities to be completed more quickly, allow more activities to be completed in a particular period of time, or allow a task to be completed with fewer resources.

9 9 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Impact of IT Applications (Continued)

10 10 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall What Is an IT Application? Impact of IT Applications (Continued) Greater Effectiveness –Effectiveness: The extent to which desirable results are achieved. Increased Creativity and Innovation

11 11 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Origin of Enterprise System Projects Definition Systems Development: The process of examining a business situation, designing a system solution to improve that situation, and acquiring the human, financial, and information technology resources needed to develop and implement the solution. Project Management: The process of planning, organizing, integrating, and overseeing the development of an IT application to ensure that the project’s objectives are achieved and the system is implemented according to expectations.

12 12 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Origin of Enterprise System Projects Project Proposal Project Proposal: A proposal for a systems projects prepared by users or systems analysts and submitted to a steering committee for approval. Steering Committee Review –Steering Committee: A group of people from various functional areas of a business that determines whether a systems development project proposal is desirable and should be pursued.

13 13 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Origin of Enterprise System Projects The Systems Analyst The System Analyst –Systems Analyst: The IT professional responsible for working with users to determine a system’s requirements and for describing the features needed in the system. –System Designer: The IT professional responsible for doing the technical work of designing the system and its software. –Programmer/Analyst: A person who has joint responsibility for determining system requirements and developing and implementing the systems.

14 14 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Origin of Enterprise System Projects The Systems Analyst (Continued) The System Analyst –Web Developer: Expected to have additional capabilities that enable him or her to use expertise in creating IT applications that will involve the Internet or company intranets and extranets, Web browsers, and the display of information using browsers.

15 15 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Definition Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC): The six-phased set of activities that brings about a new IT application. –Problem Recognition/Preliminary Investigation –Requirements Determination –Systems Design –Development and Construction –Implementation –Evaluation and Continuing Evolution

16 16 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Definition (Continued)

17 17 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Problem Recognition/Preliminary Investigation Preliminary Investigation: The first phase of the systems development life cycle, in which the merits and feasibility of a project proposal are determined. Three types of feasibility –Operational –Financial/Economic –Technical

18 18 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Requirements Determination Requirement: A feature that must be included in a system. Requirements Determination: The second phase of the systems development life cycle, in which the current business situation is studied to determine who is involved, what data and information are needed, and how the current system can be improved.

19 19 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Requirements Determination (Continued) Two types of Improvement –Process Improvement: An improvement in the way a business works. Process: A structured activity that leads to a set of results (output). –Business Improvement Offering New Products and Services Speeding Up Business Processes Reducing the Cost of Products and Services Entering New Regions or Markets

20 20 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Requirements Determination (Continued)

21 21 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Requirements Determination (Continued)

22 22 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design Systems Design: The third phase of the systems development life cycle, in which requirements are translated into design specifications. Three steps –Preliminary (Conceptual) Design –Prototyping: A working model of an IT application. –Detailed (Physical) Design Output: Information and Results –Layout Description: A chart that shows the exact location of data and information on a computer screen or in a printed report.

23 23 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design (Continued)

24 24 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design (Continued)

25 25 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design (Continued) Three steps –Detailed (Physical) Design Input: Data and Information for Processing Stored Data: Databases and Files Processing and Procedures Controls

26 26 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design (Continued)

27 27 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Systems Design

28 28 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Development and Construction Principal Activities –Acquisition of Software and Services –Programming –Testing Software Testing: The testing of software programs to ensure that the software will not produce unexpected or incorrect results or interruptions during processing. Test Data: Experimental files used to test software. System Testing: The testing of a complete system – software, procedures, and guidelines.

29 29 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Development and Construction (Continued)

30 30 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Implementation Three important aspects of Implementation –Training: The process by which people are taught how to use a system. –Site Preparation: The activities involved in preparing for the installation of a new system. –Conversion Strategies Conversion Plan: A description of all the activities that must occur to change over to a new system. Direct Cut Over Strategy: A conversion plan in which people abruptly stop using an old system and immediately begin using a new one.

31 31 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Implementation (Continued) Three important aspects of Implementation –Conversion Strategies Parallel Systems Strategy: A conversion plan in which the old and the new system are used together for a period of time, with the old system being gradually phased out. Pilot Conversion Strategy: A conversion plan in which a working version of a new system is implemented in one group or department to test it before it is installed throughout the entire business. Phase-in Strategy: A conversion plan in which a new system is gradually phased in throughout the organization or department over a certain period of time.

32 32 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Implementation (Continued)

33 33 Senn, Information Technology, 3 rd Edition © 2004 Pearson Prentice Hall The Systems Development Life Cycle Evaluation and Continuing Evolution Evaluation: To determine if the system can deliver the expected level of usability and usefulness and provide the anticipated benefits.


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