Presentation on theme: "Department of Psychology University of Glasgow Kazuyo Nakabayashi"— Presentation transcript:
1Department of Psychology University of Glasgow Kazuyo Nakabayashi Social PsychologyDepartment of PsychologyUniversity of GlasgowKazuyo Nakabayashi
2Learning Objectives At the end of this session you should be able to: understand what attitudes and behaviour areunderstand what roles and self-identity areexplain how role playing might influence our self-identitydescribe what schemata, stereotypes, and prejudice areexplain how stereotypes are linked to prejudice
3Topic 1: Does behaviour determine attitudes ? Demonstrate how role playing affects attitudes and our selfidentity (a part of self concept)- A simulated prison experiment(Stanford Prison Experiment)Topic 2: Do attitudes determine behaviour ?Demonstrate how stereotypes are related to prejudice leadingto prejudicial acts (discrimination)
4Terminologies that you need to know AttitudesSchemataRolesBehaviourSelf-concept (self-identity is a part of self-concept)StereotypesPrejudice
5What is social psychology? It is the study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in regard to other people and how individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviour are affected by other people.E.g., prejudice, football hooligans, BigBrother,
6AttitudesAttitudes refer to our evaluations (feelings, beliefs, opinions) of the social world.Social world involves people, objects, food, countries, activities, etc.Do you have any reactions (favourable or unfavourable) toGeorge BushCocaineFishAnimal testingIf so, you hold attitudes toward them
7SchemataA schema is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about everything that we know about the world, including oneself, others, events, etc.A schema is important because it allows us to quicklymake sense of a person, situation, event, or aplace on the basis of limited information.So, when a schema is activated, it “ fills in” missing details.
8We have different types of schemata For example,- A schema for the self (self-schema)I am a Japanese (self-identity)I am a wife (a role I play)- A schema for other individuals (person-schema)George Bush is American (identity)He is the American president (a role he plays)- A schema for a group of people (a stereotype)Schemata are normally built up from experience, but they can be formed without experience (for example, stereotypes).
91 forceful (M)2 warm (F)3 generous (N)4 loyal (N)5 quiet (F)6 has leadership abilities (M)7 tender (F)8 self-sufficient (M)9 fair (N)10 dominant (M)11 moody (N)12 affectionate (F)13 independent (M)14 careful (N)15 romantic (F)- Count the number of adjectives recalled. Of which how manyof them are the circled items and how many of them are noncircled items?
10The self-reference effect (A demonstration of schematic processing) The self-reference effect, which occurs when individuals show superior memory for information that pertains to their self-schema.Schemata guide our attention to certain thingsin our environments, which ultimatelyinfluence the way we understand our worldand memory.
11How attitudes and schemata differ ? - An attitude can be used to explain the actions of aperson. (He is always nice to her because he fancies her).- A schema guides an action.(I rushed out of the restaurant because I saw smokecoming out of the kitchen)- A schema as a framework (what you know about a certain thing).- An attitude as a response (how do you feel about a certain thing)
12A schema (a framework) can be used to form an attitude (a response or reaction) towards a certain object,person, event, etc.feeds intoe.g., Rory is mean and arrogant (Rory-schema). So, Idon’t like him (an attitude towards Rory).SchemaAttitude
13A quick summary of terminology Attitudes are our responses to our environmentsSchemata represent our knowledge of the world
14Does behaviour determine attitudes? Topic 1Does behaviour determine attitudes?- A role refers to prescribed actions (e.g., amother role, a student role, a lecturer role)- We tend to hold certain expectations (how arole should be played) of each role.So, you will be surprised if I …………If this is the case, I am not playing a lecturer role.
15BehaviourBehaviour refers to acts, activities, movements, processes, etc.e.g., shouting, doing a sport, stretching,crying, making a plan for a holidayBehaviour can be verbal (e.g., swearing) or non-verbal (e.g., facial expressions and eye contact)A role becomes behaviour when it is enacted.
16Self-conceptSelf-concept is the sum total of a person’s thoughts and feelings that defines the self as an object.Self-concept is made up of discrete self-schemata, including self-identity .Self-identity is a part of self-concept, which is subject concepts of oneself as an individual (who you think you are)
17Self-concept The total sum of knowledge, thoughts, and feelings about yourselfSelf-identitySubjective concepts of who you areA part of self-schemaDiscrete self-schemata (all of them are parts of self-concept)
18A quick summary of terminology A role is prescribed actions for that roleA role becomes behaviour when enactedBehaviour is what you do, including non-verbal behaviourSelf-concept is everything that you know, feel, and think about yourself, which is composed of different self schemata
19Why is the prison experiment important? Write down your views
20Why is the prison experiment important? Demonstrated the impact that social roles can have on our self-concept.Demonstrated the impact that social roles can have on our behaviourHighlighted the ethical issues for conducting psychological experiments
21A summary of topic 1 So, behaviour can determine attitudes Role playing can have strong effects on one’s attitudes and self- concept. Ultimately, this affects one’s behaviour.So, behaviour can determine attitudes
22Do attitudes determine behaviour? Topic 2Do attitudes determine behaviour?Demonstrate how a negative group-schema (stereotype)leads to negative attitudes toward a certain group ofpeople, and how this can lead to prejudice and prejudicialacts (discrimination).
23What is a stereotype ?A stereotype is a schema (a mental framework) for a group of people (e.g., women, Italians, social workers, gays, etc).A stereotype contains information about their appearance, characteristic, and behaviour.Stereotyping is social categorization.
24Categorisation Categorisation is one of the cognitive tendencies - We tend to put things into groups (for example., linesand shapes)- Once categorisation has taken place, we exaggeratethe differences between the groups and exaggerate thesimilarities within them (social categorisation)Categorisation is closely related to prejudice
25Problems with a stereotype It can be wrong.(It doesn’t always represent the truth orfacts about a group of people).It can be used as lens, which distorts what we see (we do not see people as they are). The lens is the stereotype.It ignores individual differences.It is difficult to change once formedSo, if our stereotypes have negative features, then wewill look for negative information about a group ofpeople, and tend to ignore the positive.
26Why this happens? Stereotyping reflects our need to be consistent. It is our effort to process the maximum amount of information with minimal cognitive effort (cognitive short-cut).As a result, stereotyping can create outgroup homogeneity effect- our tendency to see members within a particular outgroup(the group which you do not belong to) as being more alike thanthey actually are.
27Stereotypes for Scottish people Drink too much, Eat too muchUnhealthyLike deep fried foodDrink whiskyEat haggisHates English- How many of these items actually describe yourself?- How many of these items (do you think) are true?- How many of these items could also be used to describeother people (i.e., non-Scottish people)
28PrejudicePrejudice refers to negative attitudes directed toward people simply because they are members of a specific social group.A person who is prejudiced toward some group tendsto ignore the individual qualities of its members.Prejudice is important because our behaviour is often influencedby our attitudes. So, if we have a hostile attitudes to others, weare likely to treat them badly.This is discriminating against them.
29So, if you think that all women are bad drivers (a negative attitude towards female drivers, i.e., prejudice), you might not allow your female friend to drive your car even if she is a better driver than you are (discrimination).
30- This is a basis of prejudice - A Stereotype - Prejudice LinkStereotyping encourages the creation and maintenance of negative attitudes to a certain group of people which may in turn be linked with negative feelings- This is a basis of prejudice -
31What are the implications demonstrated by Stephen Lawrence Murder case?
32The murder of Stephen Lawrence demonstrated that The impact of a social group that has on our behaviour.How racism (negative attitudes toward a certain group and members of that group) can lead to extreme discriminatory actsHow stereotypes lead to discriminatory acts in society
33Can you think of real life examples, illustrating the Stereotype - Prejudice link?
34A summary of topic 2Prejudice is strongly related to discrimination. If we hold negative attitudes toward some people, we are more likely to behave towards them negatively.Many real life examples show that our attitudes can determine how we behave.
35Essay Title Describe what a stereotype and prejudice are. Explain (in your own words) how a stereotype might berelated to prejudice.
36Writing an essay describe and explain Read the title carefully and think what you are required to doAnswer the questionBe aware of the differences betweendescribe and explain
37Describe and Explain Describe includes, for example: To give an account of something by giving details of its characteristicsTo label somethingTo represent something using a diagramExplain includes, for example:Same as Description 1, with enough clarity and detail to be understood by someone elseTo make the meaning of something clear to someone elseTo express ideas or thoughts in a way that is easily understood
38Finally, please come to Psychology Department (58 Hillhead Street) and participate in some studies. Of course, you will be paid and it is the easiest earn some money.It is the best way to know how scientific studies are run