Presentation on theme: "SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY We become what people expect us to become … and so a negative belief predicts a negative behaviour If a teacher thinks you will."— Presentation transcript:
SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY We become what people expect us to become … and so a negative belief predicts a negative behaviour If a teacher thinks you will fail in an exam you probably will!
You must be able to describe and evaluate both Social Learning Theory and Self fulfilling Prophecy.
Is this true of you? Mondays child is fair of face, Tuesdays child is full of grace, Wednesdays child is full of woe, Thursdays child has far to go, Fridays child is loving and giving, Saturdays child works hard for his living, And the child that is born on the Sabbath day Is bonny and blithe, and good and gay.
According to Jahoda (1954) Males born on Wednesday had a significantly higher arrest rate (22%) than males born on Monday (6%)
In pairs list some labels we give to different groups (in terms of criminal activity) and discuss what affect this may have on them. The affect of labels/labelling: 1.Labels can affect an individuals self concept (how we see ourselves) and lead to SFP. 2.Labels can affect the way others treat you and may lead to SFP 3.Society may label people according to the way others treat you and this may lead to SFP.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy Prophecy Is set Expectation Prophecy is fulfilled
WE TEND TO LIVE UP TO THE LABEL WE ARE GIVEN Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) studied self-fulfilling prophecy in a classroom: Pygmalion in the classroom. Teachers were allowed to overhear a conversation at the beginning of the year that identified 20 children in the class as ‘late developers’ about to ‘spurt’. The teachers believed this was based on an IQ test done, but it was random. At the end of the year, those 20 children did indeed have improved IQ scores, and continued to for 2 years. The ‘prophecy’ came true because the teachers responded differently to them (more feedback etc). What are the moral and ethical issues here?
Snyder et al. (1977) Found that when male participants we told to get acquainted with a female assistant on the phone, what they were told about her affected the treatment of her, despite never having met. Some were told she was attractive, others were told she was not. When the male participant believed the female was attractive, he was more friendly and sociable towards her. When he told she was not, the males responded in an ‘aloof’ manner. This demonstrated that their treatment of the women was self-fulfilling, because when they were responded to with friendliness, they were then more friendly back..
Exam question 1.What is meant by the term Self fulfilling prophecy? (4 marks)
WHY PEOPLE TURN TO CRIME A form of labelling. Based on the idea that an observer’s beliefs of expectations about a person or group influence their social interactions, and therefore elicits or creates the expected behaviour. (Merton, 1948). A form of stereotyping The observers beliefs are based on their schemas or stereotypes relating to that group or individual They will tend more to notice, and even seek behaviour that conforms to their expectations, and ignore that which doesn’t.This then acts as reinforcement of their opinion. (Selective social interaction).
How does this apply to explanations of criminal behaviour? When observers expect anti-social behaviour, they confirm expectations and seek confirmation in behaviour. The observed will then behave in anti-social ways due to the encouragement provided for it, their negative self- belief (that they are not capable of better behaviour). The pressure to conform to expectations, and the feeling that any pro-social behaviour is ignored means any effort to change is pointless.
….but It works better IF –More than one person holds the same expectation –When those expecting someone to behave in a certain way, and those behaving are not familiar to each other. –The expected behaviour is not far different from the individuals normal behaviour. –The expectation is negative It does not work IF –The person with the expected behaviour of the individual is of low power.