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Psychological Disorders

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1 Psychological Disorders





6 Write down 3 criteria that could be used to define abnormal behavior.
Anne is a sixteen-year-old living in a medium sized city in the Midwest. Her family includes a mother, father, 14-yr-old brother, and a great-aunt, who has lived with the family since Anne was 4. Anne is a junior at City High School and is taking college level classes. He appearance is strikingly different from the other girls in her class. She wears blouses which she has made out of various scraps of material. The blouses are accompanied by the same pair of overalls everyday, two mismatched shoes, and a hat with a blue feather. She is a talented artist, producing sketches of her fellow classmates that are remarkable accurate. She draws constantly, even when told that to do so will lower her grade in classes where she is expected to take lecture notes. She has no friends at school, but seems undisturbed by the fact that she eats lunch by herself and walks alone around the campus. Her grades are erratic; if she likes a class she often receives an A or B, but will do no work at all in those she dislikes. Anne can occasionally be heard talking to herself; she is interested in poetry, and says she is “composing” if asked about her poetry. She refuses to watch TV, calling it a “wasteland>” This belief is carried into the classroom, where she refuses to watch videos, saying they are poor excuses for teaching. Her parents say they don’t understand her; she isn’t like anyone in their family. She and her brother have very little in common. He is embarrasses by Anne’s behavior, and doesn’t understand her either. Anne seems blithely unaware of her apparent isolation, except for occasional outbursts about the meaningless of most people’s activities. Write down 3 criteria that could be used to define abnormal behavior.

7 1. A man walks up to a window carrying a chair
1. A man walks up to a window carrying a chair. He puts down the chair, opens the window, takes off his clothes, and seats himself on the chair. Why? He says he feels the need for an “air bath.” 2. Every morning, a woman who lives in a Boston suburb asks her husband to bring in the morning newspaper, which the carrier throws just inside their fence. She does this because she is terrible afraid of encountering a poisonous snake. Her husband, concerned about her behavior, repeatedly tells her that there are no poisonous snakes living in their town. Nevertheless, she is afraid to leave the house.

8 3. A teenaged boy packs a blanket and a bottle of water
3. A teenaged boy packs a blanket and a bottle of water. Ignoring near-freezing temperatures, he climbs a nearby mountain, spreads the blanket on the ground, sits cross-legged on it, closes his eyes, and remains there throughout the night. In the morning, he runs home and tells his father he has seen a vision. 4. A teenaged girl misses school for three days. She periodically breaks into tears. She finds it nearly impossible to get out of bed in the morning, though she cannot sleep for more than an hour or two at a time. She has no appetite and become nauseated if her family urges her to eat.

9 *Abnormal does not mean you have a psychological disorder.
Abnormal Psychology *Abnormal does not mean you have a psychological disorder. DISORDERS PRE-TEST Witch Video

10 Psychological Disorder
A harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical. Maladaptive – harmful to oneself Unjustifiable – without a rational basis Disturbing – Troublesome to other people Atypical – So different that they violate a norm

11 History of Disorders 4000 years ago – Babylonians Hebrews Socrates
Demonic possession Prayer and magic Hebrews Punishment for sin Religion Socrates Faulty thought processes Words 1400’s Europe Demons Tortured or executed to get the evil spirit out 1700’s Europe Human zoo’s and jails Phillipe Pinel ( ) France Sickness Humane treatment – clean conditions, gentle treatment Dorthea Dix ( ) United States Humane treatment – clean conditions, active role in society

12 How is abnormal behavior viewed?
Two models or perspectives are used. Medical Model Bio-Psycho-Social Model

13 Medical Model Mental diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed through treatable symptoms Syphilis Leaves out nurture Stress Upbringing Personal history

14 Bio-Psycho-Social Model
A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders Biological Predisposition Genetic predisposition to a disorder Psychological Thoughts or thinking patterns Social Social expectations and cultural and religious ideals Biological Psychological Social Bio-Psycho-Social Model

15 Classify Disorders DSM-IV-TR
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Practical application: Insurance companies must have a DSM-IV-TR before they cover 14 Categories Descriptions of mental illnesses, not causes Estimated percentage of population (1 study) 83% of the time it’s the same diagnosis 48% qualify at some time Creates labels Biological view – find symptoms Pg. 525

16 Labeling Disorders Scary
1980’s TV - 70% of psychological disorders = criminals and violent Real life – 10% Help professionals communicate about patients 1972 – Thomas Eagleton Now – Strength not weakness to get help -Pg. 526 -Rosenhan Study backs this up -*How do you feel if a teacher says, “oh, I’ve heard of you?” or “Are you so and so’s sibling?”

17 Phobia Quiz- Match the item to its scientific phobia name:
A. Cryophobia B. Aerophobia C. Claustrophobia D. Acrophobia E. Spheksophobia F. Dendrophobia G. Ommatophobia H. Ecclesiaphobia I. Musophobia J. Phagophobia K. Arachnophobia L. Hematophobia M. Sciophobia N. Spermophobia O. Nyctophobia 1. Swallowing 2. Churches 3. Wasps 4. Blood 5. Enclosed Space 6. Heights 7. Trees 8. Darkness 9. Germs 10. Frost 11. Shadows 12. Spiders 13. Mice 14. Eyes 15. Air

18 Anxiety Vague feeling of apprehension and nervousness.
Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Panic Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Phobia

19 Symptoms of Anxiety Restlessness Feeling on edge
Affects about 40 million American adults a year Last at least 6 months and can get worse if not treated Commonly occur along with other mental or physical illnesses Restlessness Feeling on edge Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbance *Each anxiety disorder has different symptoms, but all the symptoms cluster around excessive, irrational fear and dread.

20 Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder-marked by persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness. Panic Disorder-marked by sudden bouts of intense, unexplained panic. Phobia-marked by disruptive, irrational fears of objects or situations. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories and dreams. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions. “For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I’m losing control in a very extreme way. My heart pounds really hard, I feel like I can’t get my breath, and there’s an overwhelming feeling that things are crashing in on me.”

21 Famous People with OCD Fred Durst: won’t go into detail but says it dominates his life. Cameron Diaz: opens doors with elbows, hand washing Alec Balwin: cleaning Leonardo DiCaprio: cracks in the pavement David Beckham: symmetry and order, even numbers, 3 fridges for food, salads, drinks Billy Bob Thornton: repetition (taking mail out to mailbox 3 times)


23 As Good as it Gets

24 Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Predisposition Brain-Function OCD-Frontal Brain is used more Phobias – Amygdala is enlarged Evolutionary fears and anxiety Conditioning Observational Learning

25 Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Medication Not a cure, but keeps disorder under control Antidepressants (SSRI’s, Tricyclics & MAOI’s) Anti-Anxiety Drugs (bensodiazepines) Beta-Blockers (treat physical symptoms) Specific types of psychotherapy Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Change thinking patterns and the behavior Or both

26 -disturbances in emotions
Mood Disorders -disturbances in emotions

27 Major Depressive Disorder-
Disabling and prevents a person from functioning normally Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness or helplessness Irritability, restlessness Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable Fatigue and decreased energy Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping Overeating or appetite loss Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts Aches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment

28 More common among women
Feeling of sadness, worthlessness and excessive guilt Biological, life cycle, hormonal and psychosocial factors Additional stresses of work and home responsibilities Still unclear why some women develop it while others don’t Men Very tired, irritable, lose interest in once-pleasurable activities and have difficulty sleeping More likely to turn to alcohol or drugs May become frustrated, discouraged, irritable, angry and sometimes abusive Children & Teens Equal until puberty; by age 15 girls are twice as likely

29 Dysthymic Disorder Long-term (2 years or longer) symptoms that may not be severe enough to disable a person but can prevent normal functioning or feeling well.

30 Depression

31 Depression

32 Those who’ve admitted to struggling with depression at points in their lives:
Dave Matthews Emma Thompson Audrey Hepburn Anthony Hopkins Terry Bradshaw

33 Other forms of depression
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Postpartum depression (10-15%)

34 “I Will Never Know Why”

35 Bipolar Disorder A mood disorder (formerly called manic depressive disorder) in which the person alternates between the hopelessness of depression and the overexcited and unreasonably optimistic state of mania.


37 Bipolar Brain

38 Famous People with Bipolar

39 Causes of Mood Disorders
Combination of genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors. Treatments of Mood Disorders Medication Psychotherapy Both

40 Other Disorders Not as common as anxiety & mood disorders
1. Lost sense of self (dissociative) 2. Lost sense of reality (schizophrenia) 3. Developed lasting & counterproductive patterns of behavior (personality disorder)

41 Dissociative Disorder
Disorders in which the sense of self has become separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, or feelings. 1. Amnesia 2. Fugue State 3. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) Used to be called Multiple Personality Disorder


43 Amnesia Memory loss Many factors cause it
Dissociative Amnesia is caused by a specific, stressful event *caused most often by serious personal threat -Retrograde -Anterograde *Freud called it repression

44 Fugue Extended form of amnesia where memory loss accompanies travel to a new location Caused by extreme stress *Can create new identity, form new relationships, go into a new line of work, etc.

45 Dissociative Identity Disorder
aka: Multiple Personality Disorder Exhibits 2 or more distinct and alternative personalities. Can be completely opposite Sometimes aware of each other, sometimes not *Diagnosis is on the rise -not all agree it’s a real disorder, hard to prove claims



48 Facts to dispel the myths
Schizophrenia Facts to dispel the myths 1. Not just one disorder, but a family of related disorders 2. Is not “split personality” (that doesn’t exist) 3. affects 1% of population, males and females equally, generally develops in late adolescence-early adulthood

49 Schizophrenia-symptoms
1. Delusions-false beliefs A. Delusions of grandeur-false belief that you are more important than you are B. Delusions of Persecution-false belief that people are out to get you C. Delusion of sin or Guilt-false belief of being responsible for some misfortune i.e. responsible for a plane crash because you didn’t brush your teeth that day. D. Delusion of Influence – false belief that outside forces are controlling you “Devil made me do it”

50 Symptoms cont. 2. Hallucinations – false perceptions *No logical basis
A. Auditory (most common) B. Visual C. Tactile (feel skin stimulation) D. Can also distort taste and smell 3. Inappropriate Emotions or Behavior They withdraw from the real world *word salad *No logical basis *Perceptions with no outside stimulation -senses can deceive you “Jerry”

51 Types of Schizophrenia
1. Paranoid-delusions of persecution & grandeur 2. Catatonic-go through excitement and stupor phases *Flat emotion & waxy flexibility part of stupor (very rare) 3. Disorganized-bizarre behavior, delusions & hallucinations, visually disturbed 4. Undifferentiated-disturbed but symptoms don’t clearly fit other types

52 Causes of Schizophrenia
1. Biological - genetics, predisposition A. Genetics, predisposition (risk increases if relatives have the disorder) B. Brain Structure i.e. thalamus is smaller C. Brain Function Less active frontal lobes 6 times more dopamine receptor sites D. Prenatal Viruses Circumstantial but persuasive 2. Psychological (Freud thought mother/child relationship caused it.) A. Stress: may trigger predisposition B. Disturbed Family Communication Patterns “Secret Life of the Brain: Teenage Schizophrenia”

53 Personality Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized when a person's long-term (chronic) behaviors, emotions, and thoughts are very different from their culture's expectations and cause serious problems with relationships and work. Usually develop by adolescence & obvious to others. (must be around 18-yrs-old to diagnose) 3 clusters=10 disorders in the DSM-IV-TR A. With odd or eccentric behaviors B. With dramatic, emotional or erratic behaviors C. With anxious or fearful behaviors

54 Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives.

55 Paranoid Personality Disorder
They search for hidden meanings in everything and read hostile intentions into the actions of others. They are quick to challenge the loyalties of friends and loved ones and often appear cold and distant to others. They usually shift blame to others and tend to carry long grudges.

56 Antisocial Personality Disorder
characterilacks conscience Most dramatic and troubling Show no concern (conscience) for the rights or feelings of others More males than females Often charming & clever Caused by combo of biological, psychological and social factors Difficult to treat effectively

57 Antisocial Personality Disorder
They are often aggressive and are much more concerned with their own needs than the needs of others. People with this disorder are prone to criminal behavior, believing that their victims are weak and deserving of being taken advantage of. They tend to lie and steal.

58 Borderline Personality Disorder
characterized by mood instability and poor self-image People with this disorder are prone to constant mood swings and bouts of anger.

59 Borderline Personality Disorder
They will take their anger out on themselves, causing themselves injury Suicidal threats and actions are not uncommon They are quick to anger when their expectations are not met.

60 Histrionic Personality Disorder
constant attention seekers They need to be the center of attention all the time, often interrupting others in order to dominate the conversation. They may dress provocatively or exaggerate illnesses in order to gain attention. They also tend to exaggerate friendships and believe that everyone loves them.

61 Histrionic Personality Disorder
P - provocative (or seductive) behavior R - relationships, considered more intimate than they are A - attention, must be at center of I - influenced easily S - speech (style) - wants to impress, lacks detail E - emotional lability, shallowness M - make-up - physical appearance used to draw attention to self E - exaggerated emotions - theatrical

62 Narcissistic Personality Disorder
characterized by extreme feelings of self-importance, a high need for admiration, and a lack of empathy. They exaggerate their achievements, expecting others to recognize them as being superior Paris Hilton?

63 Narcissistic Personality Disorder
They tend to be choosy about picking friends, since they believe that not just anyone is worthy of being their friend. They are generally uninterested in the feelings of others and may take advantage of them.

64 Schizoid Personality Disorder
People with schizoid personality disorder avoid relationships and do not show much emotion They genuinely prefer to be alone and do not secretly wish for popularity.

65 Schizoid Personality Disorder
They tend to seek jobs that require little social contact Their social skills are often weak and they do not show a need for attention or acceptance They are perceived as humorless and distant and often are termed "loners."

66 Avoidant Personality Disorder
characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation. consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing, and avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed or humiliated.

67 Narrative Assignment It’s all about HER! Why does Lisa demand so much attention? Perhaps you know someone like Lisa. At parties, she always steers the conversation back to herself. She makes sure everyone knows how important, accomplished, and intelligent she is. If Lisa doesn’t get the admiration she thinks she deserves, she’ll move on to another group and take over their conversation. She thinks nothing of telling-not asking, telling-someone to get her a plate of food or something to drink. Talking to Lisa after the party, you can see another side of her personality. Even though there were plenty of guys paying attention to her, she still envied Julia for talking to the new Swedish exchange student.

68 What makes Lisa act the way she does
What makes Lisa act the way she does? She may actually have a personality disorder named after narcissus, a youth in a Greek myth who fell in love with his own reflection. That condition is called narcissistic personality disorder. Narrative: Choose three of the personality disorders we’ve discussed in class and write more profiles of people with personality disorders. These should resemble the example of Lisa above in length and content. Worth 15 points

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