6 Write down 3 criteria that could be used to define abnormal behavior. Anne is a sixteen-year-old living in a medium sized city in the Midwest. Her family includes a mother, father, 14-yr-old brother, and a great-aunt, who has lived with the family since Anne was 4. Anne is a junior at City High School and is taking college level classes. He appearance is strikingly different from the other girls in her class. She wears blouses which she has made out of various scraps of material. The blouses are accompanied by the same pair of overalls everyday, two mismatched shoes, and a hat with a blue feather. She is a talented artist, producing sketches of her fellow classmates that are remarkable accurate. She draws constantly, even when told that to do so will lower her grade in classes where she is expected to take lecture notes. She has no friends at school, but seems undisturbed by the fact that she eats lunch by herself and walks alone around the campus. Her grades are erratic; if she likes a class she often receives an A or B, but will do no work at all in those she dislikes. Anne can occasionally be heard talking to herself; she is interested in poetry, and says she is “composing” if asked about her poetry. She refuses to watch TV, calling it a “wasteland>” This belief is carried into the classroom, where she refuses to watch videos, saying they are poor excuses for teaching. Her parents say they don’t understand her; she isn’t like anyone in their family. She and her brother have very little in common. He is embarrasses by Anne’s behavior, and doesn’t understand her either. Anne seems blithely unaware of her apparent isolation, except for occasional outbursts about the meaningless of most people’s activities.Write down 3 criteria that could be used to define abnormal behavior.
7 1. A man walks up to a window carrying a chair 1. A man walks up to a window carrying a chair. He puts down the chair, opens the window, takes off his clothes, and seats himself on the chair. Why? He says he feels the need for an “air bath.”2. Every morning, a woman who lives in a Boston suburb asks her husband to bring in the morning newspaper, which the carrier throws just inside their fence. She does this because she is terrible afraid of encountering a poisonous snake. Her husband, concerned about her behavior, repeatedly tells her that there are no poisonous snakes living in their town. Nevertheless, she is afraid to leave the house.
8 3. A teenaged boy packs a blanket and a bottle of water 3. A teenaged boy packs a blanket and a bottle of water. Ignoring near-freezing temperatures, he climbs a nearby mountain, spreads the blanket on the ground, sits cross-legged on it, closes his eyes, and remains there throughout the night. In the morning, he runs home and tells his father he has seen a vision.4. A teenaged girl misses school for three days. She periodically breaks into tears. She finds it nearly impossible to get out of bed in the morning, though she cannot sleep for more than an hour or two at a time. She has no appetite and become nauseated if her family urges her to eat.
9 *Abnormal does not mean you have a psychological disorder. Abnormal Psychology*Abnormal does not mean you have a psychological disorder.DISORDERS PRE-TESTWitch Video
10 Psychological Disorder A harmful dysfunction in which behaviors are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical.Maladaptive – harmful to oneselfUnjustifiable – without a rational basisDisturbing – Troublesome to other peopleAtypical – So different that they violate a norm
11 History of Disorders 4000 years ago – Babylonians Hebrews Socrates Demonic possessionPrayer and magicHebrewsPunishment for sinReligionSocratesFaulty thought processesWords1400’s EuropeDemonsTortured or executed to get the evil spirit out1700’s EuropeHuman zoo’s and jailsPhillipe Pinel ( ) FranceSicknessHumane treatment – clean conditions, gentle treatmentDorthea Dix ( ) United StatesHumane treatment – clean conditions, active role in society
12 How is abnormal behavior viewed? Two models or perspectives are used.Medical ModelBio-Psycho-Social Model
13 Medical ModelMental diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed through treatable symptomsSyphilisLeaves out nurtureStressUpbringingPersonal history
14 Bio-Psycho-Social Model A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disordersBiologicalPredispositionGenetic predisposition to a disorderPsychologicalThoughts or thinking patternsSocialSocial expectations and cultural and religious idealsBiologicalPsychologicalSocialBio-Psycho-Social Model
15 Classify Disorders DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersPractical application: Insurance companies must have a DSM-IV-TR before they cover14 CategoriesDescriptions of mental illnesses, not causesEstimated percentage of population (1 study)83% of the time it’s the same diagnosis48% qualify at some timeCreates labelsBiological view – find symptomsPg. 525
16 Labeling Disorders Scary 1980’s TV - 70% of psychological disorders = criminals and violentReal life – 10%Help professionals communicate about patients1972 – Thomas EagletonNow – Strength not weakness to get help-Pg. 526-Rosenhan Study backs this up-*How do you feel if a teacher says, “oh, I’ve heard of you?” or “Are you so and so’s sibling?”
17 Phobia Quiz- Match the item to its scientific phobia name: A. CryophobiaB. AerophobiaC. ClaustrophobiaD. AcrophobiaE. SpheksophobiaF. DendrophobiaG. OmmatophobiaH. EcclesiaphobiaI. MusophobiaJ. PhagophobiaK. ArachnophobiaL. HematophobiaM. SciophobiaN. SpermophobiaO. Nyctophobia1. Swallowing2. Churches3. Wasps4. Blood5. Enclosed Space6. Heights7. Trees8. Darkness9. Germs10. Frost11. Shadows12. Spiders13. Mice14. Eyes15. Air
18 Anxiety Vague feeling of apprehension and nervousness. Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety DisorderPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPanic DisorderObsessive Compulsive DisorderPhobia
19 Symptoms of Anxiety Restlessness Feeling on edge Affects about 40 million American adults a yearLast at least 6 months and can get worse if not treatedCommonly occur along with other mental or physical illnessesRestlessnessFeeling on edgeDifficulty concentrating or mind going blankIrritabilityMuscle tensionSleep disturbance*Each anxiety disorder has different symptoms, but all the symptoms cluster around excessive, irrational fear and dread.
20 Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety Disorder-marked by persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness.Panic Disorder-marked by sudden bouts of intense, unexplained panic.Phobia-marked by disruptive, irrational fears of objects or situations.Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories and dreams.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions.“For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I’m losing control in a very extreme way. My heart pounds really hard, I feel like I can’t get my breath, and there’s an overwhelming feeling that things are crashing in on me.”
21 Famous People with OCDFred Durst: won’t go into detail but says it dominates his life.Cameron Diaz: opens doors with elbows, hand washingAlec Balwin: cleaningLeonardo DiCaprio: cracks in the pavementDavid Beckham: symmetry and order, even numbers, 3 fridges for food, salads, drinksBilly Bob Thornton: repetition (taking mail out to mailbox 3 times)
24 Causes of Anxiety Disorders PredispositionBrain-FunctionOCD-Frontal Brain is used morePhobias – Amygdala is enlargedEvolutionary fears and anxietyConditioningObservational Learning
25 Treatment of Anxiety Disorders MedicationNot a cure, but keeps disorder under controlAntidepressants (SSRI’s, Tricyclics & MAOI’s)Anti-Anxiety Drugs (bensodiazepines)Beta-Blockers (treat physical symptoms)Specific types of psychotherapyCognitive-Behavioral TherapyChange thinking patterns and the behaviorOr both
26 -disturbances in emotions Mood Disorders-disturbances in emotions
27 Major Depressive Disorder- Disabling and prevents a person from functioning normallyPersistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelingsFeelings of hopelessness or pessimismFeelings of guilt, worthlessness or helplessnessIrritability, restlessnessLoss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurableFatigue and decreased energyDifficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisionsInsomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleepingOvereating or appetite lossThoughts of suicide, suicide attemptsAches or pains, headaches, cramps or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment
28 More common among women Feeling of sadness, worthlessness and excessive guiltBiological, life cycle, hormonal and psychosocial factorsAdditional stresses of work and home responsibilitiesStill unclear why some women develop it while others don’tMenVery tired, irritable, lose interest in once-pleasurable activities and have difficulty sleepingMore likely to turn to alcohol or drugsMay become frustrated, discouraged, irritable, angry and sometimes abusiveChildren & TeensEqual until puberty; by age 15 girls are twice as likely
29 Dysthymic DisorderLong-term (2 years or longer) symptoms that may not be severe enough to disable a person but can prevent normal functioning or feeling well.
35 Bipolar DisorderA mood disorder (formerly called manic depressive disorder) in which the person alternates between the hopelessness of depression and the overexcited and unreasonably optimistic state of mania.
39 Causes of Mood Disorders Combination of genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors.Treatments of Mood DisordersMedicationPsychotherapyBoth
40 Other Disorders Not as common as anxiety & mood disorders 1. Lost sense of self (dissociative)2. Lost sense of reality (schizophrenia)3. Developed lasting & counterproductive patterns of behavior (personality disorder)
41 Dissociative Disorder Disorders in which the sense of self has become separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, or feelings.1. Amnesia2. Fugue State3. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)Used to be called Multiple Personality Disorder
43 Amnesia Memory loss Many factors cause it Dissociative Amnesia is caused by a specific, stressful event*caused most often by serious personal threat-Retrograde-Anterograde*Freud called it repression
44 FugueExtended form of amnesia where memory loss accompanies travel to a new locationCaused by extreme stress*Can create new identity, form new relationships, go into a new line of work, etc.
45 Dissociative Identity Disorder aka: Multiple Personality DisorderExhibits 2 or more distinct and alternative personalities.Can be completely oppositeSometimes aware of each other, sometimes not*Diagnosis is on the rise-not all agree it’s a real disorder, hard to prove claims
48 Facts to dispel the myths SchizophreniaFacts to dispel the myths1. Not just one disorder, but a family of related disorders2. Is not “split personality” (that doesn’t exist)3. affects 1% of population, males and females equally, generally develops in late adolescence-early adulthood
49 Schizophrenia-symptoms 1. Delusions-false beliefsA. Delusions of grandeur-false belief that you are more important than you areB. Delusions of Persecution-false belief that people are out to get youC. Delusion of sin or Guilt-false belief of being responsible for some misfortunei.e. responsible for a plane crash because you didn’t brush your teeth that day.D. Delusion of Influence – false belief that outside forces are controlling you “Devil made me do it”
50 Symptoms cont. 2. Hallucinations – false perceptions *No logical basis A. Auditory (most common)B. VisualC. Tactile (feel skin stimulation)D. Can also distort taste and smell3. Inappropriate Emotions or BehaviorThey withdraw from the real world*word salad*No logical basis*Perceptions with no outside stimulation-senses can deceive you“Jerry”
51 Types of Schizophrenia 1. Paranoid-delusions of persecution & grandeur2. Catatonic-go through excitement and stupor phases*Flat emotion & waxy flexibility part of stupor (very rare)3. Disorganized-bizarre behavior, delusions & hallucinations, visually disturbed4. Undifferentiated-disturbed but symptoms don’t clearly fit other types
52 Causes of Schizophrenia 1. Biological - genetics, predispositionA. Genetics, predisposition (risk increases if relatives have the disorder)B. Brain Structurei.e. thalamus is smallerC. Brain FunctionLess active frontal lobes6 times more dopamine receptor sitesD. Prenatal VirusesCircumstantial but persuasive2. Psychological (Freud thought mother/child relationship caused it.)A. Stress: may trigger predispositionB. Disturbed Family Communication Patterns“Secret Life of the Brain: Teenage Schizophrenia”
53 Personality Disorders Psychological disorders characterized when a person's long-term (chronic) behaviors, emotions, and thoughts are very different from their culture's expectations and cause serious problems with relationships and work.Usually develop by adolescence & obvious to others. (must be around 18-yrs-old to diagnose)3 clusters=10 disorders in the DSM-IV-TRA. With odd or eccentric behaviorsB. With dramatic, emotional or erratic behaviorsC. With anxious or fearful behaviors
54 Paranoid Personality Disorder Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives.
55 Paranoid Personality Disorder They search for hidden meanings in everything and read hostile intentions into the actions of others.They are quick to challenge the loyalties of friends and loved ones and often appear cold and distant to others. They usually shift blame to others and tend to carry long grudges.
56 Antisocial Personality Disorder characterilacks conscienceMost dramatic and troublingShow no concern (conscience) for the rights or feelings of othersMore males than femalesOften charming & cleverCaused by combo of biological, psychological and social factorsDifficult to treat effectively
57 Antisocial Personality Disorder They are often aggressive and are much more concerned with their own needs than the needs of others.People with this disorder are prone to criminal behavior, believing that their victims are weak and deserving of being taken advantage of. They tend to lie and steal.
58 Borderline Personality Disorder characterized by mood instability and poor self-imagePeople with this disorder are prone to constant mood swings and bouts of anger.
59 Borderline Personality Disorder They will take their anger out on themselves, causing themselves injurySuicidal threats and actions are not uncommonThey are quick to anger when their expectations are not met.
60 Histrionic Personality Disorder constant attention seekersThey need to be the center of attention all the time, often interrupting others in order to dominate the conversation.They may dress provocatively or exaggerate illnesses in order to gain attention.They also tend to exaggerate friendships and believe that everyone loves them.
61 Histrionic Personality Disorder P - provocative (or seductive) behaviorR - relationships, considered more intimate than they areA - attention, must be at center ofI - influenced easilyS - speech (style) - wants to impress, lacks detailE - emotional lability, shallownessM - make-up - physical appearance used to draw attention to selfE - exaggerated emotions - theatrical
62 Narcissistic Personality Disorder characterized by extreme feelings of self-importance, a high need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.They exaggerate their achievements, expecting others to recognize them as being superiorParis Hilton?
63 Narcissistic Personality Disorder They tend to be choosy about picking friends, since they believe that not just anyone is worthy of being their friend.They are generally uninterested in the feelings of others and may take advantage of them.
64 Schizoid Personality Disorder People with schizoid personality disorder avoid relationships and do not show much emotionThey genuinely prefer to be alone and do not secretly wish for popularity.
65 Schizoid Personality Disorder They tend to seek jobs that require little social contactTheir social skills are often weak and they do not show a need for attention or acceptanceThey are perceived as humorless and distant and often are termed "loners."
66 Avoidant Personality Disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation.consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing, and avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed or humiliated.
67 Narrative AssignmentIt’s all about HER!Why does Lisa demand so much attention? Perhaps you know someone like Lisa. At parties, she always steers the conversation back to herself. She makes sure everyone knows how important, accomplished, and intelligent she is. If Lisa doesn’t get the admiration she thinks she deserves, she’ll move on to another group and take over their conversation. She thinks nothing of telling-not asking, telling-someone to get her a plate of food or something to drink. Talking to Lisa after the party, you can see another side of her personality. Even though there were plenty of guys paying attention to her, she still envied Julia for talking to the new Swedish exchange student.
68 What makes Lisa act the way she does What makes Lisa act the way she does? She may actually have a personality disorder named after narcissus, a youth in a Greek myth who fell in love with his own reflection. That condition is called narcissistic personality disorder.Narrative:Choose three of the personality disorders we’ve discussed in class and write more profiles of people with personality disorders. These should resemble the example of Lisa above in length and content.Worth 15 points