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The Roaring Twenties. Postwar Fears Nativism –Re-emergence of the KKK –Quota System Emergency Quota Act of 1921 National Origins Act of 1924 Fear of Communism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties. Postwar Fears Nativism –Re-emergence of the KKK –Quota System Emergency Quota Act of 1921 National Origins Act of 1924 Fear of Communism."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roaring Twenties

2 Postwar Fears Nativism –Re-emergence of the KKK –Quota System Emergency Quota Act of 1921 National Origins Act of 1924 Fear of Communism –Red ScarePalmer Raids –Fear of labor agitators Boston Police Strike (1919) Steel Strike (1919) American Federation of Labor John L. Lewis Fear of Anarchy –Sacco & Vanzetti 2

3 Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics Warren G. Harding –Republican –Elected in 1920 Return to Normalcy –March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office) –Domestic Issues Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)very high Suspect CabinetOhio Gang Teapot Dome Scandal Albert B. Fall –Foreign Policy Isolationism & Disarmament Washington Naval Conference (1921) Dawes Plan Warren G. Harding –Republican –Elected in 1920 Return to Normalcy –March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office) –Domestic Agenda Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)very high Suspect CabinetOhio Gang Teapot Dome ScandalAlbert B. Fall –Foreign Policy Isolationism & Peace Keeping Washington Naval Conference (1921) Dawes Plan 3

4 Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics Calvin Coolidge –Republican –Took office upon death of Harding (1923). –Re-elected 1924 –August,1923 to March,1929 –Domestic Issues Cleaned up scandals of the Harding Administration. Restored the image of the Republican Party. The business of America is business. –Foreign Policy Isolationism Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 4

5 Consumerism of the 1920s: Spending Money Is the American Way Mass Production –Assembly line –Scientific management (Taylor) Electrical Conveniences –Electricity available in more places –Refrigerators, Irons, Stoves, Toasters, Vacuums, Furnaces, Lighting Shopping –Emergence of Advertising Reinforce buying things that we dont need Create a need –Emergence of Credit The installment plan Down payment, Monthly payments, Interest Buy now! Pay later! 5

6 Changes in Transportation: The Automobile Henry Ford (assembly line) Huge impact on society –Construction of paved roads –Patterns of settlementsuburbs –Petroleum industry –Rubber industry –Glass industry –Steel industry –Repair shops –Parking lots –Hotels & Motels –Restaurants –Amusement parks –Dating 6

7 1920s Cultural Clashes: Religion vs. Science Nativists vs. Immigrants Race: KKK rises again Prohibition: Drys vs. Wets Womens roles: New Woman vs. Victorian 7

8 Cultural Changes: Fundamentalism vs. Modernism Age-old argument –Religion (fundamentalists) vs. science –Often rural vs. urban Scopes Trial –John Scopesbiology teacher in Tennessee –Clarence Darrowdefense attorney –William Jennings Bryan prosecuting attorney –Outcome? 8

9 Immigration Literacy Test Quota System after WWI –1921 Emergency Quota Act 3% of those here in1910 –1924 National Origins Act 2% of the people here in 1890 –closing the Golden Door –Eugenics 9

10 Racism KKK rises again in 1915 Targets Blacks, Jews, Catholics, and Immigrants invisible Empire Led by an Imperial Wizard or Grand Dragon 10

11 New Woman vs. Victorian First decade affected by the Nineteenth Amendment! More women going to college. Women moving into the work place. –Typewriters –Telephones Married later with fewer children. The Flapper –Dress –Behavior 11

12 Cultural Changes: Prohibition 18 th Amendment: cannot manufacture, sell, or transport alcoholic beverages. Volstead Act: outlined procedures to enforce the amendmentunderfunded! Urban vs. Rural– passed by rural strength Drys vs. wets Proof that the Noble Experiment failed! –Speakeasies –Bootleggers 12

13 Prohibition breeds crime Crime on the Rise –Organized Crime: Al Capone Chicago gangster St. Valentines Day Massacre Jailed on tax evasion –NASCAR –Repealed in 1933 (21 st Amendment) Utah cast the deciding vote 13

14 Rise of Popular Culture: Magazines & Newspapers –Readers Digest –Time –Life 14

15 Rise of Popular Culture: Literature Sinclair Lewis –Main Street –Babbitt F. Scott Fitzgerald –The Jazz Age –The Great Gatsby Ernest Hemingway –The Sun Also Rises –A Farewell to Arms Edna St. Vincent Millay 15

16 Rise of Popular Culture: Sports Participation sports –Baseball –Football –Golf –Tennis –Swimming –Biking Spectator sports –Boxing –Football –Baseball Heroes –Gertrude Ederle –Jack Dempsey –George Herman Babe Ruth –Red Grange 16

17 Changes in Transportation: The Airplane The Wright Brothers (1903) –Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Use during World War I –Flaming Coffins –Observation –Dog Fights –Red Baron vs. Snoopy 1920 Transcontinental Airmail Service Charles Lindbergh (May 20-21, 1927) –New York to Paris (nonstop) –Solo –33 hours, 29 minutes –Perhaps the greatest American hero of the 1920s! Amelia Earhart –http://www.ameliaearhartmuseum.org/Am eliaEarhart/AEAccomplishments.htmhttp://www.ameliaearhartmuseum.org/Am eliaEarhart/AEAccomplishments.htm 17

18 Rise of Popular Culture: Mass Media The Golden Age of Radio –First commercial radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh –News programs –Sports –Radio programscomedy, drama, science fiction, childrens programs –Music 18

19 Rise of Popular Culture: Motion Pictures Charlie Chaplainthe little tramp Rudolph Valentino heart throb The Jazz Singer (1927)first with sound Steamboat Willie (1928) –Introduced Mickey Mouse to the world –First cartoon with sound 19

20 Rise of African American Culture: The Harlem Renaissance Birth of art and literature in the Black community By-product of the Great Migration Writers –Claude McKay –Langston Hughes –Zora Neale Hurston 20

21 The Lynching by Claude McKay His spirit is smoke ascended to high heaven. His father, by the cruelest way of pain, Had bidden him to his bosom once again; The awful sin remained still unforgiven. All night a bright and solitary star (Perchance the one that ever guided him, Yet gave him up at last to Fate's wild whim) Hugh pitifully o'er the swinging char. Day dawned, and soon the mixed crowds came to view The ghastly body swaying in the sun: The women thronged to look, but never a one Showed sorrow in her eyes of steely blue; And little lads, lynchers that were to be, Danced round the dreadful thing in fiendish glee. 21

22 A Negro Speaks of Rivers By Langston Hughes I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. 22

23 Rise of African American Culture: Marcus Garvey & the UNIA Argued in opposition to NAACP Keep Black dollars in Black businesses & the Black community. Back to Africa Movement –Raised money –Purchased ships (Black Star Line) –Many sunk –Jailed for mail fraud. Deported from the country. 23

24 Rise of African American Culture: Jazz Music Perhaps the greatest cultural symbol of the 1920s. Blended instrumental ragtime with vocal blues. Improvised! Performers: –Louis Armstrong (trumpet) –Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington (piano) –Bessie Smith (vocals) 24

25 Sources dison's_home_in_Ft._Myers_Florida_1914_detail_LC-LC-USZ _.tiff.png/503px- Henry_Ford_at_Edison's_home_in_Ft._Myers_Florida_1914_detail_LC-LC- USZ _.tiff.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/Henry_Ford_at_E dison's_home_in_Ft._Myers_Florida_1914_detail_LC-LC-USZ _.tiff.png/503px- Henry_Ford_at_Edison's_home_in_Ft._Myers_Florida_1914_detail_LC-LC- USZ _.tiff.png s_suspended_in_museum_-_desc-below_left_shot_like_flying_-_from- DC1.jpg/630px-Spirit_of_St._Louis_suspended_in_museum_-_desc- below_left_shot_like_flying_-_from-DC1.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Spirit_of_St._Loui s_suspended_in_museum_-_desc-below_left_shot_like_flying_-_from- DC1.jpg/630px-Spirit_of_St._Louis_suspended_in_museum_-_desc- below_left_shot_like_flying_-_from-DC1.jpg photo_id=326798http://pictopia.com/perl/get_image?provider_id=319&size=550x550_mb&ptp_ photo_id= _400.jpghttp://dase.laits.utexas.edu/media/american_politics_collection/viewitem/ _400.jpg Charles%20J%20Hayes/General%20Wu.jpghttp://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/county/allegany/InterestingStoriesFiles/Sgt% 20Charles%20J%20Hayes/General%20Wu.jpg Hurricane_Club_1943.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Duke_Ellington_at_the_ Hurricane_Club_1943.jpg /images/radioantique2.JPGhttp://webquest.org/questgarden/lessons/ /images/radioantique2.JPG estadium1923.JPGhttp://www.theamazingbronx.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/yanke estadium1923.JPG 7!Gertrude_Ederle.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/archive/5/53/ !Gertrude_Ederle.jpg nary/rev_grange.jpghttp://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/multimedia/photo_gallery/2005/07/01/revolutio nary/rev_grange.jpg poster.jpghttp://www.popartuk.com/g/l/lg the-great-gatsby-f-scott-fitzgerald- poster.jpg %20of%20Creativity.jpghttp://negroartist.com/The%20Harlem%20Renaissance%20A%20Celebration %20of%20Creativity.jpg portrait.jpghttp://rpp.english.ucsb.edu/wp-content/uploads/2006/08/weiss_hughes- portrait.jpg _NYWTS.jpg/770px-Louis_Armstrong_NYWTS.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Louis_Armstrong _NYWTS.jpg/770px-Louis_Armstrong_NYWTS.jpg 25


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