2Postwar Fears Nativism Fear of Communism Fear of Anarchy Re-emergence of the KKKQuota SystemEmergency Quota Act of 1921National Origins Act of 1924Fear of CommunismRed Scare—Palmer RaidsFear of labor agitatorsBoston Police Strike (1919)Steel Strike (1919)American Federation of Labor—John L. LewisFear of AnarchySacco & Vanzetti
3Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics Warren G. HardingRepublicanElected in 1920 “Return to Normalcy”March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office)Domestic AgendaFordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)—very highSuspect Cabinet—”Ohio Gang”Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert B. FallForeign PolicyIsolationism & Peace KeepingWashington Naval Conference (1921)Dawes PlanWarren G. HardingRepublicanElected in 1920 “Return to Normalcy”March 1921 to August 1923 (died in office)Domestic IssuesFordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)—very highSuspect Cabinet—”Ohio Gang”Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert B. FallForeign PolicyIsolationism & DisarmamentWashington Naval Conference (1921)Dawes Plan
4Presidents of the 1920s: A Return to Conservative Politics Calvin CoolidgeRepublicanTook office upon death of Harding (1923).Re-elected 1924August,1923 to March,1929Domestic IssuesCleaned up scandals of the Harding Administration.Restored the image of the Republican Party.“The business of America is business.”Foreign PolicyIsolationismKellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
5Consumerism of the 1920s: “Spending Money Is the American Way” Mass ProductionAssembly lineScientific management (Taylor)Electrical ConveniencesElectricity available in more placesRefrigerators, Irons, Stoves, Toasters, Vacuums, Furnaces, LightingShoppingEmergence of AdvertisingReinforce buying things that we don’t needCreate a needEmergence of CreditThe installment planDown payment, Monthly payments, InterestBuy now! Pay later!
6Changes in Transportation: The Automobile Henry Ford (assembly line)Huge impact on societyConstruction of paved roadsPatterns of settlement—suburbsPetroleum industryRubber industryGlass industrySteel industryRepair shopsParking lotsHotels & MotelsRestaurantsAmusement parksDating
71920s Cultural Clashes: Religion vs. Science Nativists vs. Immigrants Race: KKK rises againProhibition: “Drys” vs. “Wets”Women’s roles: “New Woman” vs. Victorian
8Cultural Changes: Fundamentalism vs. Modernism Age-old argumentReligion (fundamentalists) vs. scienceOften rural vs. urbanScopes TrialJohn Scopes—biology teacher in TennesseeClarence Darrow—defense attorneyWilliam Jennings Bryan—prosecuting attorneyOutcome?
9Immigration Literacy Test Quota System after WWI 1921 Emergency Quota Act3% of those here in19101924 National Origins Act2% of the people here in 1890‘closing’ the Golden DoorEugenics
10Racism KKK rises again in 1915 Targets Blacks, Jews, Catholics, and Immigrants“invisible Empire”Led by an Imperial Wizard or Grand Dragon
11New Woman vs. VictorianFirst decade affected by the Nineteenth Amendment!More women going to college.Women moving into the work place.TypewritersTelephonesMarried later with fewer children.The FlapperDressBehavior
12Cultural Changes: Prohibition 18th Amendment: cannot “manufacture, sell, or transport” alcoholic beverages.Volstead Act: outlined procedures to enforce the amendment—underfunded!Urban vs. Rural– passed by rural strengthDrys vs. wetsProof that the “Noble Experiment” failed!SpeakeasiesBootleggers
13Prohibition breeds crime Crime on the RiseOrganized Crime:Al CaponeChicago gangsterSt. Valentine’s Day MassacreJailed on tax evasionNASCARRepealed in 1933 (21st Amendment)Utah cast the deciding vote
14Rise of Popular Culture: Magazines & Newspapers Reader’sDigestTimeLife
15Rise of Popular Culture: Literature Sinclair LewisMain StreetBabbittF. Scott Fitzgerald“The Jazz Age”The Great GatsbyErnest HemingwayThe Sun Also RisesA Farewell to ArmsEdna St. Vincent Millay
16Rise of Popular Culture: Sports Participation sportsBaseballFootballGolfTennisSwimmingBikingSpectator sportsBoxingHeroesGertrude EderleJack DempseyGeorge Herman “Babe” RuthRed Grange
17Changes in Transportation: The Airplane The Wright Brothers (1903)Kitty Hawk, North CarolinaUse during World War I“Flaming Coffins”ObservationDog FightsRed Baron vs. Snoopy1920 Transcontinental Airmail ServiceCharles Lindbergh (May 20-21, 1927)New York to Paris (nonstop)Solo33 hours, 29 minutesPerhaps the greatest American hero of the 1920s!Amelia Earhart
18Rise of Popular Culture: Mass Media The “Golden Age” of RadioFirst commercial radio station—KDKA in PittsburghNews programsSportsRadio programs—comedy, drama, science fiction, children’s programsMusic
19Rise of Popular Culture: Motion Pictures Charlie Chaplain—”the little tramp”Rudolph Valentino—”heart throb”The Jazz Singer (1927)—first with soundSteamboat Willie (1928)Introduced Mickey Mouse to the worldFirst cartoon with sound
20Rise of African American Culture: The Harlem Renaissance Birth of art and literature in the Black communityBy-product of the Great MigrationWritersClaude McKayLangston HughesZora Neale Hurston
21“The Lynching” by Claude McKay His spirit is smoke ascended to high heaven.His father, by the cruelest way of pain,Had bidden him to his bosom once again;The awful sin remained still unforgiven.All night a bright and solitary star(Perchance the one that ever guided him,Yet gave him up at last to Fate's wild whim)Hugh pitifully o'er the swinging char.Day dawned, and soon the mixed crowds came to viewThe ghastly body swaying in the sun:The women thronged to look, but never a oneShowed sorrow in her eyes of steely blue;And little lads, lynchers that were to be,Danced round the dreadful thing in fiendish glee.
22“A Negro Speaks of Rivers” By Langston Hughes I've known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins.My soul has grown deep like the rivers.I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset.I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers.
23Rise of African American Culture: Marcus Garvey & the UNIA Argued in opposition to NAACP“Keep Black dollars in Black businesses & the Black community.”“Back to Africa” MovementRaised moneyPurchased ships (Black Star Line)Many sunkJailed for mail fraud. Deported from the country.
24Rise of African American Culture: Jazz Music Perhaps the greatest cultural symbol of the 1920s.“Blended instrumental ragtime” with “vocal blues.” Improvised!Performers:Louis Armstrong (trumpet)Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (piano)Bessie Smith (vocals)