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Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day One.

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Presentation on theme: "Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day One."— Presentation transcript:

1 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day One

2 GHSGT Content Weights (revised 2008) American Government/Civics 17-19% United States History to % United States History since % World Geography 12-14% World History 17-19%

3 American Government/Civics - Declaration of Independence –July 4, 1776 –Echoes theories of John Locke Natural rights everyone is entitled to Governments get the power to govern from the people Governments that fail to serve citizens should be replaced –Outlines problems with England –Formal declaration of independence

4 Declaration of Independence -revolutionary document –Emphasized equality and natural rights –Rights not applied to everyone, but the document fueled the movements that led to the end of slavery, equal rights for women, and recognition of minority rights.

5 Review What document formally proclaimed the American colonies independence from Great Britain? –A. The social contract –B. the letters of Enlightenment –C. the Declaration of Independence –D. the writings of John Locke

6 Review What document formally proclaimed the American colonies independence from Great Britain? –A. The social contract –B. the letters of Enlightenment –C. the Declaration of Independence –D. the writings of John Locke

7 Review Rights which human beings are born with and which no government has a right to take away are called –A. Declaratory rights –B. Natural rights –C. Social rights –D. Alienable rights

8 Review Rights which human beings are born with and which no government has a right to take away are called –A. Declaratory rights –B. Natural rights –C. Social rights –D. Alienable rights

9 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Two

10 Government Review Articles of Confederation –U.S. Constitution drawn up following the Declaration of Independence. –Weak alliance of states –Failed because it didnt give enough power to the national government (although it made sense at the time) No power to impose taxes 9 of 13 states had to agree for Congress to pass a law and they rarely agreed! No national executive or court No power to regulate trade or enforce laws –Each state government was more powerful than the new national government.

11 Articles of Confederation Accomplishments: –Held the nation together during the American Revolution. –Passed Northwest Ordinance providing for orderly settlement of the western territories. Problems: –States taxed goods from other states, made trade difficult. –States printed their own money – created problems with trade. –After the war was over, the national government had no power to create a standing army. –Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts led people to fear the weakness of the government. –Decided to revise the Articles.

12 Review Questions Which document provided a plan for the structure of the U.S. government in the period before the U.S. Constitution was adopted? –A. Mayflower Compact –B. Articles of Confederation –C. Bill of Rights –D. Stamp Act

13 Review Questions Which document provided a plan for the structure of the U.S. government in the period before the U.S. Constitution was adopted? –A. Mayflower Compact –B. Articles of Confederation –C. Bill of Rights –D. Stamp Act

14 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Three

15 U.S. Constitution Disagreements between large and small states and northern and southern states. Virginia Plan – proposed three branches of government (legislative, executive, judicial), bicameral legislature with representatives from each state. Representation to be determined by population. New Jersey Plan – called for three branches of government, but wanted the legislative branch to be unicameral with each state getting a single vote.

16 U.S. Constitution Great Compromise –a/k/a Connecticut Plan – proposed by Roger Sherman of CT. –Legislative branch with two houses House of Representatives – elected directly by the people, with each state granted a certain number of seats based on population. Senate – elected by state legislatures, each state having two senators regardless of population. The two houses together would be CONGRESS.

17 Other Compromises 3/5 Compromise – each slave would count as 3/5 of a person (this was to balance out the slave population in the South). Slave trade compromise – Those who opposed the slave trade agreed to allow it to continue unregulated for 20 years. South said they couldnt survive without it. Slave trade ended in Slavery continued until 1865.

18 Review Question Use the quotation below to answer the following question: Gentlemen, I believe that this compromise presents the best possible solution to this dilemma. Since those in the North feel strongly that slaves are not citizens and therefore should not be counted in the population, while our Southern representatives feel just as strongly that they should be, I see no other solution.

19 Review Question The quote above is referring to which of the following? –A. The Three Fifths Compromise –B. The Connecticut Plan –C. The Slave Trade Compromise –D. The Virginia Plan

20 Review Question The quote above is referring to which of the following? –A. The Three Fifths Compromise –B. The Connecticut Plan –C. The Slave Trade Compromise –D. The Virginia Plan

21 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Four

22 Fundamental Principles of the Constitution Rule of Law – U.S. is a society governed by laws, not a king or small body of rulers. Limited government – principle that even governments have to obey laws and respect the rights of citizens. They are limited in their powers. Separation of powers – divides authority to govern between the branches of government. –Legislative – makes the laws –Executive – enforces the laws –Judicial – interprets laws, make sure they are applied fairly and appropriately.

23 Fundamental Principles of the U.S. Constitution Checks and balances – each branch checks the powers of the other two. Power is divided, no branch becomes too powerful. Federalism – power is divided between different levels of government (national and state governments share power) Popular sovereignty – the government gets its power from the people and is subject to the will of the people.

24 Review Questions The idea of a legislative branch making the laws, an executive branch enforcing the laws, and a judicial branch overseeing application of the law is consistent with –A. Separation of powers –B. checks and balances –C. federalism –D. popular sovereignty

25 Review Questions The idea of a legislative branch making the laws, an executive branch enforcing the laws, and a judicial branch overseeing application of the law is consistent with –A. Separation of powers –B. checks and balances –C. federalism –D. popular sovereignty

26 Review Questions Which of the following states that governments are empowered by and exist only for the people they govern? –A. Federalism –B. Popular sovereignty –C. Anti-federalism –D. Checks and balances

27 Review Questions Which of the following states that governments are empowered by and exist only for the people they govern? –A. Federalism –B. Popular sovereignty –C. Anti-federalism –D. Checks and balances

28 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Five

29 Bill of Rights -Many states opposed the new Constitution because they felt it didnt do enough to protect individual rights (state constitutions had Bills of Rights) -Many refused to ratify until a Bill of Rights was added. -Federalists and Anti-Federalists

30 Bill of Rights 1 – Freedom of religion, press, assembly, right to petition 2 – right to bear arms 3 – quartering of soldiers 4 – search and seizure 5 – life, liberty and property (guaranteed due process, no self- incrimination) 6 – rights of the accused (speedy trial by jury, right to confront witnesses) 7 – right to jury trial (civil cases – disputes involving more than $20) 8 – no cruel and unusual punishment 9 – all other rights – you have rights that arent listed 10 – rights of states and the people – states or people have all powers not assigned to the federal government or denied the states.

31 Review Hand signals to remember amendments

32 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Six

33 World History Renaissance –1350 AD to mid 1500s –Rebirth –Era in which artists, architects, philosophers, political thinkers, scientists, and even theologians believed in reviving the classical ideas of ancient Greece and Rome. –Rebirth of culture, thought and civilization after a period of disorder in Europe known as the Dark Ages More emphasis on individual worth, potential of individuals

34 World History Renaissance –Changes in political thought –Move away from importance of monarchs ruling according to Christian ethics and toward rulers making decisions based on human nature and what s best for the state. (Machiavelli) Renaissance Man –Humans are limitless in what they can accomplish –People can achieve great things in several areas Ex: Leonardo da Vinci (painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist, architect, engineer, mathematician - Mona Lisa, The Last Supper. Ex: Michelangelo – painter, sculptor, builder (David, Sistine Chapel in Rome)

35 Review Question He greatly impacted political thought by asserting that leaders should rule according to the needs of the state rather than simply relying on what is considered ethical or moral. –A. Martin Luther –B. John Calvin –C. Machiavelli –D. Leonardo da Vinci

36 Review Question He greatly impacted political thought by asserting that leaders should rule according to the needs of the state rather than simply relying on what is considered ethical or moral. –A. Martin Luther –B. John Calvin –C. Machiavelli –D. Leonardo da Vinci

37 Review Question Which statement best describes a change that occurred during the Renaissance? –A. Feudalism became the dominant political system. –B. The use of reason and logic was discouraged. –C. Technology and science were considered unimportant. –D. A new questioning spirit and attitude emerged.

38 Review Question Which statement best describes a change that occurred during the Renaissance? –A. Feudalism became the dominant political system. –B. The use of reason and logic was discouraged. –C. Technology and science were considered unimportant. –D. A new questioning spirit and attitude emerged.

39 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Seven

40 Reformation Martin Luther –German monk – changed Christianity forever –Believed that the Bible taught that people are saved by grace of God not religious works, opposed Catholic church selling indulgences. –Nailed 95 Theses to door of church, voiced his protest. –Intended to get church to change its ways, led to the Protestant Reformation. (protested Catholic emperor imposing Catholicism in Germany) –Founder of new church that rejected many Catholic traditions and didnt answer to the pope.

41 Reformation John Calvin –Challenged the Catholic church in Switzerland –Put forth many ideas that came to define Protestant thought – such as predestination. Idea that God has already decided who is saved and who is lost and humans can do nothing to change it. –Became ruler of Geneva and made it a Protestant city. –Calvinism became the foundation of the Presbyterian church.

42 Reformation English Reformation –Henry VIII wanted divorce, pope refused –Established Church of England, with himself as its head –One of the new churchs first acts was to grant the king his divorce. –Kept many of the same beliefs and ceremonies of the Catholic church but did not answer to the pope.

43 Reformation Catholic church responded with some reform. –Jesuits used education to counter arguments against the church. –Council of Trent tried to get people to come back to the church. –Council provided clearly stated doctrine and unified the Catholic church as never before.

44 Printing Press Gutenbergs printing press had large impact on Renaissance and Reformation: –Written works could be widely distributed and read. (Bible, 95 Theses, etc.)

45 Review Question He challenged the selling of indulgences and other Catholic practices which he felt contradicted the Bible. Eventually, his teachings led to a new church in Germany and a religious movement known as the Protestant Reformation. Who was he? John Calvin Martin Luther King Henry VIII Ignatius Loyola

46 Review Question He challenged the selling of indulgences and other Catholic practices which he felt contradicted the Bible. Eventually, his teachings led to a new church in Germany and a religious movement known as the Protestant Reformation. Who was he? John Calvin Martin Luther King Henry VIII Ignatius Loyola

47 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Eight

48 Geography Study of the earths surface, land, bodies of water, climate, peoples, industries, natural resources, etc. –Physical geography – study how physical characteristics (land, climate, bodies of water, animal life) define a region or place. –Human geography – study of how human characteristics (language, religion, political systems, economic systems, population, way of life) are important to geography.

49 Continents Continents are numbered below in order of physical size, with 1 being the largest and 7 the smallest. 1 – Asia 2 – Africa 3 – North America 4 – South America 5 – Antarctica 6 – Europe 7 – Australia

50 Review Questions Practice questions using a map.

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53 Georgia High School Graduation Test Review Day Nine and Day Ten

54 U.S. History Flash card review of as much as possible for the last day or two of review.


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