2 8. When dense, cold air pushes beneath warmer atmospheric air, the lighter, warmer air rises. As this air rises into the atmosphere, it cools and some of the water vapor in it condenses. Which of the following will most likely form as this occurs?A. a cloud B. a rainbow C. a sunset D. a tornado
3 30. What technology is used to measure the depth of the ocean? A. submarines B. radar C. telescopes D. sonar
4 37. Which natural force creates surface ocean currents? A. gravity B. sunlight C. earthquakes D. wind
5 43. On most ocean shorelines, the water rises slowly and covers the land twice a day. Then it slowly falls back. What is this movement called?A. current B. wave C. tide D. drift
6 48. The ozone layer of the atmosphere protects the earth from excessive ultraviolet radiation. Because ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation the ozone layer isA. warmer than the layers surrounding it. B. situated at the top of the ionosphere. C. cooler than the layers surrounding it. D. more than 100 km in thickness.
7 52. Ocean water differs from freshwater in that it has A. a higher temperature. B. a lower temperature. C. a higher concentration of sodium chloride. D. a higher concentration of silicon dioxide.
8 The above diagram shows a portion of the structure of Earth's atmosphere. The unidentified layer is theA. troposphere. B. ionosphere. C. thermosphere. D. exosphere.
9 64. When the velocity of a river changes as it enters a quiet body of water, sediment is deposited and forms aA. channel. B. slope. C. delta. D. levee.
10 75. At the seashore late in the afternoon on a hot, sunny day, a person often feels a strong breeze coming in from the ocean. Which of the following is the reason for the breeze?A. The pounding waves generate air currents. B. The warm air over the ocean rushes in to replace the cool air that rises over the land. C. The heavy, cool air over the ocean rushes in to replace the warm air that rises over the land. D. There are no clouds to block the wind coming in from the ocean.
11 80. Sunlight is not currently used as a major source of energy. Why not? A. Not enough sunlight reaches Earth to meet our energy needs. B. Economical ways to capture and store large amounts of solar energy have not been developed. C. Using sunlight for power will keep plants and animals from getting the energy they need. D. Our reserves of gas and oil will last for several hundred years so there is no need to change to solar energy.
12 82. An air mass gets its temperature and humidity from A. the land or water over which it forms. B. changes in the upper atmosphere. C. the latitude at which it forms. D. the air masses that surround it.
13 85. The jet stream has a great impact on changing weather conditions in an area because it A. does not change with the seasons. B. keeps the atmosphere supplied with moisture. C. is a determinant of major air movements. D. speeds up evaporation following precipitation.
14 3. Which contains the greatest amount of Earth's freshwater? A. groundwater B. oceans and seas C. lakes and rivers D. glaciers and polar ice cap
15 11. Life on Earth is protected from the Sun's ultraviolet radiation by A. the cloud cover. B. dust particles. C. water vapor. D. the ozone layer.
16 19. Most water vapor in the atmosphere comes from A. evaporation from oceans. B. evaporation from soil. C. transpiration from plants. D. the burning of fossil fuels.
17 21. One way the North Atlantic Ocean is different from the South Pacific Ocean is that the North Atlantic hasA. a greater average depth. B. a higher average pressure. C. a larger average concentration of salt. D. a lower average temperature.
18 25. Nights tend to be cooler than days because A. winds blow more strongly at night. B. the part of Earth in darkness receives less energy. C. cooler air in the upper atmosphere drops closer to Earth's surface. D. water vapor condenses when it is cooled.
19 27. Wind results when two air masses collide that have a difference in A. size. B. pressure. C. latitude. D. altitude.
20 33. The energy source that powers Earth's water cycle is A. Earth's rotation. B. heat from the Sun. C. radiation from Earth's core. D. the Sun's gravity.
21 41. The salts in the sea come from A. weathering and erosion of rocks. B. acid rain. C. particles falling from space. D. organisms that live in the sea.
22 42. Which term refers to the area at the seashore that is underwater during high tide and exposed during low tide?A. intertidal zone B. neritic zone C. open-ocean zone D. mid-ocean zone
23 43. Which ocean current moves perpendicular to the shore and sometimes carries swimmers out to sea? A. rip current B. swelling C. surface current D. longshore current
24 44. There are three major zones in the ocean: the surface, the middle, and the ocean floor. Which form of ocean life lives mainly in the middle zone?A. plankton B. coral C. nekton D. benthos
25 45. What are the two dominant elements in Earth's atmosphere? A. oxygen and carbon dioxide B. hydrogen and helium C. nitrogen and oxygen D. silicon and hydrogen
26 48. Which are the two most abundant elements dissolved in seawater? A. Ca and Cl B. Na and Mg C. Na and Cl D. Mg and Ca
27 50. The phenomenon that causes the winds to be deflected to the left or right due to Earth's rotation is calledA. Steno's laws. B. the Coriolis effect. C. the nebular hypothesis. D. differentiation.
28 71. High spring tides generally result from A. mild earthquake activity. B. heavy spring rains. C. the alignment of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun. D. thawing polar ice caps.
29 74. Water in Earth's atmosphere comes mainly from A. the oceans. B. tropical rain forests. C. glaciers. D. underground rivers.
30 75. The section of a continent that lies just off the shoreline and extends beneath the ocean is called the continentalA. plain. B. shelf. C. basin. D. ridge.
31 76. Which of these is the most important function of the ocean? A. giving off water vapor into the atmosphere B. supplying people with chemicals C. warming up large nearby landmasses D. generating electricity
32 77. Most modern cities obtain their drinking water from A. surface reservoirs. B. rivers and streams. C. underground reservoirs. D. desalinated ocean water.
33 78. Which process is most important to the water cycle? A. flooding B. erosion C. evaporation D. farm irrigation
34 79. The ozone layer in Earth's upper atmosphere is important to living organisms because it A. absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. B. breaks down harmful pollutants into normal atmospheric gases. C. supplies the oxygen living organisms require to carry on respiration. D. traps heat close to Earth's surface to maintain temperatures necessary for life.
35 80. Earth's atmosphere can be divided into four main regions 80. Earth's atmosphere can be divided into four main regions. Listed in order of increasing altitude, the four regions are theA. thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere. B. thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and troposphere. C. troposphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, and stratosphere. D. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.
36 81. Most dissolved minerals in the oceans come from A. precipitation from clouds. B. underwater volcanic activity. C. weathering and erosion of rocks found on land. D. meteorites and other matter from outer space.
37 83. What causes the tides in Earth's oceans? A. gravity due to the Sun and the Moon B. solar energy from the Sun C. Earth's revolution around the Sun D. rotation of the Sun
38 1. What causes the outside of the windshield of a car to get icy on a cold autumn night when there is no rain? A. Moisture comes from inside the car and freezes. B. Water vapor from the air freezes on the glass. C. Water that is already on the glass freezes. D. Hydrogen and oxygen in the air combine and form water, and it freezes.
39 4. During the water cycle, when water vapor changes to liquid water, it is called A. evaporation. B. condensation. C. freezing. D. boiling.
40 5. In order for precipitation to occur on Earth, water from oceans, lakes, and rivers must A. condense. B. freeze. C. expand. D. evaporate.
41 12. Many gallons of freshwater pour into the oceans each day 12. Many gallons of freshwater pour into the oceans each day. However, the salinity balance is maintained becauseA. sea organisms consume the freshwater. B. the water becomes salty as it enters the ocean. C. water continuously evaporates back out of the ocean. D. salty glacial water is also evaporating from the ice caps.
42 17. Janet designed an experiment to determine whether the depth of water in a container had an effect on how quickly the water evaporated. In order to carry out her experiment, which variable would Janet need to change?A. the amount of water in the container B. the width of the container C. the location of the container D. the material the container is made of
43 21. In the morning, Mary noticed there was dew on the grass 21. In the morning, Mary noticed there was dew on the grass. In the afternoon, the grass was dry. What most likely happened to the water?A. It went into the ground. B. It went into the air. C. It formed clouds. D. It no longer exists.
44 22. Which best represents the order of seafloor features as you move from the shoreline to the deep ocean?A. continental slope continental shelf continental rise mid-ocean ridge B. continental rise continental shelf mid-ocean ridge continental slope C. continental shelf continental slope continental rise mid-ocean ridge D. mid-ocean ridge continental rise continental shelf continental slope
45 23. The ozone layer protects us from A. global warming. B. ultraviolet radiation. C. infrared rays. D. harmful chemicals.
46 43. Which two physical changes are essential processes in the water cycle? A. oxidation and reduction B. evaporation and condensation C. mixing and separating D. ebbing and flowing
47 44. Which processes are responsible for the distribution of freshwater to inland locations on the continents?A. rotation and revolution B. tides and ocean currents C. solar storms and magnetism D. moving air masses and gravity
48 45. What makes seawater different from the water in our homes? A. Seawater contains dissolved minerals. B. Seawater is a heavy isotope of freshwater. C. Seawater has the chemical formula H2O2. D. Seawater is much older than freshwater.
49 46. If you could look at the deep ocean floor, which is the best description of what you would see? A. high mountains and deep valleys B. flat, silt-covered, lifeless regions C. coral reefs with many varieties of life D. ocean ridges with active volcanoes
50 48. Cold air is more dense than warm air 48. Cold air is more dense than warm air. When a cold air mass moves into a warm air mass, causing a cold front, the warm air mass isA. compressed into a smaller mass, as it becomes even warmer. B. forced backward, as the approaching cold air replaces it. C. wedged upward, where its water vapor condenses. D. squeezed downward, causing clouds and rain.
51 59. Algae and other producers need lots of sunlight 59. Algae and other producers need lots of sunlight. Most ocean algae would be found in the water —A. on the abyssal plain B. in the oceanic trench C. above the continental shelf D. beside the continental slope
52 64. Which of the following is a renewable source of energy? A. Natural gas B. Coal C. Oil D. Falling water
53 65. By increasing the height of smokestacks, industries in the Midwest reduced the local concentration of air pollutants. However, the pollution was carried by wind to the Northeast where it contributed significantly to —A. reduced rainfall B. soil erosion C. mass wasting D. acid rain
54 69. During which of these phases of the moon will the tides be highest?
55 71. At which ocean feature would the greatest amount of water pressure be exerted? A. Continental shelf B. Continental slope C. Abyssal plain D. Trench
56 79. Which of these will cause the greatest high tides? A. F.D. J.B. G.
57 80. Barrier islands are low and narrow sandy islands that form a rim offshore from a coastline. These islands protect inland shores from the surf, especially during storms. These islands are becoming increasingly developed because people want to live by the open ocean, yet the islands themselves are not permanent. Why aren't the islands permanent? A. People develop the islands and remove sand during housing construction. B. Offshore earthquakes cause the islands to sink below sea level. C. The wind and the waves are constantly redistributing the sand. D. Development companies mine the sand for use in inland construction projects.
58 85. The pictures show different stages in the development of a river valley. Which picture shows the first stage of development?C.A.B.D.
59 87. The Earth's surface can change either quickly or slowly 87. The Earth's surface can change either quickly or slowly. Which of these can happen when rocks and soil in the Earth move suddenly?A. Landslides B. Tornadoes C. Hurricanes D. Blizzards