2 atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as Earth atmosphere a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet, such as EarthThe most abundant elements in air are the gases nitrogen, oxygen, and argon.The two most abundant compounds in air are the gases carbon dioxide, CO2, and water vapor, H2O.
3 Nitrogen in the Atmosphere Nitrogen makes up about 78% of Earth’s atmosphere and is maintained through the nitrogen cycle.Nitrogen is removed from the air mainly by the action of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.Decay releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere.
4 Oxygen in the Atmosphere Oxygen makes up about 21% of Earth’s atmosphere.Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of oxygen in a process called photosynthesisAnimals, bacteria, and plants remove oxygen from the air as part of their life processes.
5 Composition of the Atmosphere Water Vapor in the AtmosphereAs water evaporates from oceans, lakes, streams, and soil, it enters air as the invisible gas water vapor.Plants and animals give off water vapor during transpiration, one of their processes. But as water vapor enters the atmosphere, it is removed by the processes of condensation and precipitation.
6 Composition of the Atmosphere Ozone in the Atmosphereozone a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atomsOzone in the upper atmosphere forms the ozone layer, which absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.Without the ozone layer, living organisms would be severely damaged by the sun’s ultraviolet rays.Unfortunately, a number of human activities damage the ozone layer.What are some “activities” that damage our ozone?
7 Composition of the Atmosphere Particulates in the AtmosphereParticulates can be volcanic dust, ash from fires, microscopic organisms, or mineral particles lifted from soil by winds.
8 Layers of the Atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere as a distinctive pattern of temperature changes with increasing altitude.Scientists identify four main layers of the atmosphere based on these differences.The TroposphereThe StratosphereThe MesosphereThe Thermosphere
10 The Tropospheretroposphere - the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases; the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist
11 The Stratospherestratosphere the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer
12 The Mesospheremesosphere the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which the temperature decreases as altitude increasesThe upper boundary of the mesosphere, called the mesopause, has an average temperature of nearly 90°C, which is the coldest temperature in the atmosphere.
13 The Thermospherethermosphere the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increase as altitude increases; includes the ionosphereIonosphere - The lower region of the thermosphere, at an altitude of 80 to 400 kmInteractions between solar radiation and the ionosphere cause the phenomena known as auroras.What is an aurora???
16 Pop Quiz1. Which layer of the atmosphere is the coldest, reaching -90C?A. TroposphereB. StratosphereC. MesosphereD. Thermosphere
17 2. In what layer of the atmosphere does weather conditions exist? A. TroposphereB. StratosphereC. MesosphereD. Thermosphere
18 3. In which layer of the atmosphere does the ozone layer exist? A. TroposphereB. StratosphereC. MesosphereD. Thermosphere
19 4. What is the most common element that makes up our atmosphere? A. OxygenB. NitrogenC. Carbon DioxideD. Hydrogen
20 5. Land and ocean plants produce large quantities of oxygen in a process called what? A. PhotosynthesisB. transpirationC. evaporationD. Absorption
21 6. Which part of the atmosphere absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun? A. ThermosphereB. MesosphereC. Ozone LayerD. Ionosphere
22 RadiationAll of the energy that Earth receives from the sun travels through space between Earth and the sun as radiation.Radiation includes all forms of energy that travel through space as waves.
23 Radiation can take several forms but the most common is light (electro-magnetic radiation). Light radiation is categorized by its wavelength. The shorter the wave length the more energetic (and dangerous).
25 The Earth’s atmosphere protects us from the harmful radiations by absorbing the energy of the light radiation.Different layers of the atmospheres absorb different wavelengths of radiation.The Exosphere and Thermosphere absorb high energy X-Ray and UV RaysThe Mesosphere absorbs very little.The Stratosphere absorbs mid-energy UV RaysThe Troposphere absorbs low energy Infra Red Radiation
26 Electromagnetic Spectrum… electromagnetic spectrum - all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiationThe distance from any point on a wave to the identical point on the next wave, for example from crest to crest, is called the wavelength of a wave.
27 The various types of radiation differ in the length of their waves.
28 The diagram below shows the varying waves of the electromagnetic spectrum.
29 Reflectionalbedo the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface of an object.Reflection - the return of light, heat, sound, etc., after striking a surface.The amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected depends on characteristics such as color, texture, composition, volume, mass, transparency, state of matter, and specific heat of the material on which the solar radiation falls.
31 AbsorptionSolar radiation that is not reflected is absorbed by rocks, soil, water, and other surface materials.The absorption of thermal energy from the ground heats the lower atmosphere and keeps Earth’s surface much warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.
32 The Greenhouse Effectgreenhouse effect the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate radiationEarth’s atmosphere slows the escape of energy that radiates from Earth’s surface.
33 The diagram below shows the greenhouse effect and the latitude and seasons.
34 Human Impact on the Greenhouse Effect Generally, the amount of solar energy that enters Earth’s atmosphere is about equal to the amount that escapes into space.However, human activities may change this balance and may cause the average temperature of the atmosphere to increase.Increases in the amount of carbon dioxide may intensify the greenhouse effect and may cause Earth to become warmer in some areas and cooler in others.