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Pre Columbian Wisconsin. Paleolithic Period 10,000 BCE – 6500 BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "Pre Columbian Wisconsin. Paleolithic Period 10,000 BCE – 6500 BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre Columbian Wisconsin

2 Paleolithic Period 10,000 BCE – 6500 BCE

3 First Human Settlement Between 45,000 & 12,000 BCE Paleo Indians migrate across Bering Land Bridge These peoples migrated along with herds of megafauna (Mammoths, Mastodons, bison, etc) 10,000 BCE – Paleo Indians reach Wisconsin

4 Paleo Indians: Clovis Culture Semi-nomadic. Followed mega-fauna seasonally Made stone tools and spear points Cached tools and frozen meat for later use, and to reduce the amount necessary to carry while moving

5 Paleo Indians: Clovis Culture With an atlatl, spear-thrower, Clovis spears could penetrate more than a foot into a mammoth

6 Clovis artifacts in Wisconsin In 1897, the Dosch family in Boaz, Wisconsin discovered a mammoth skeleton and Clovis spear points on their farm Clovis peoples lived in Wisconsin at the end of last Ice Age

7 Clovis Period Clovis Period lasted from 10,000 BCE to 9,000 BCE Three hypotheses on why it ended Overkill Hypothesis: Clovis peoples hunted the megafauna to extinction Younger-Dryas Cold Shock Hypothesis: 1500 years of cold temperatures ended Clovis culture Younger-Dryas Impact Hypothesis: An impact, or near impact of a comet or meteor changed climates abruptly

8 Paleo Indians: Plano Culture Hunter-gatherers, predominantly on the Great Plains, but remnants of Plano culture have been found on Atlantic and Pacific coasts and as far north as the Northwest Territories

9 Plano Culture Hunted bison antiquus, much larger than today's bison Preserved meat with berries and fats Also stampeded herds over cliffs or into corrals May have used circular teepees and earthen lodges

10 Plano Period Plano Period lasted from 7,000 BCE to 4,000 BCE Plano Period ends when bison antiquus is hunted to extinction and new culture emerges

11 Archaic Period 6,000 BCE –1,000 BCE

12 Boreal Archaic Period Water vapor from melting glaciers created a greenhouse effect that sped up the process As the land warmed up, megafauna migrated north Boreal Archaic peoples began to hunt smaller animals

13 Boreal Archaic Culture Boreal Archaic peoples were semi-nomadic, moving through locations in cycle with the seasons Made greater use of stone tools, such as the adze Evidence of dugout canoes Also evidence of elaborate burial rituals

14 Boreal Archaic Culture Lasted from around 6000 BCE to about 4000 BCE Boreal period is considered to have ended with the appearance and use of copper artifacts

15 Old Copper Culture Lasted from around 4000 BCE to about 500 BCE Peoples mined copper along shores of Lake Superior Made tools, jewelry, etc from copper

16 Old Copper Culture Tools, spearpoints, fish hooks, etc

17 Old Copper Culture Copper Culture artifacts were mined in limited area, Keweenaw Peninsula in modern Michigan Artifacts found in large area indicates existence of trade

18 Old Copper Culture Copper Cultures in Wisconsin performed elaborate burial rituals, indicating a degree of spiritualism Artifacts show extensive trade across continent In Eastern Wisconsin sites, archaeologists have found: Freshwater clam shells from the Mississippi River Whelk shells from Gulf of Mexico Oconto County Burial Site

19 Early Woodland Period 500 BCE – 100 BCE Hunting and gathering. Wild plants: hickory nuts, blackberries wild rice, etc. Small game, fish and shellfish They did plant some crops such as squash, sunflowers, tubers and herbs

20 Early Woodland Period First North Americans we know that made pottery and other clay artifacts

21 Early Woodland Period Tools, jewelry, pipes, weapons, etc

22 Early Woodland Period Tee-Pees/Wigwams, covered with reeds/grass, hides As farming develops, settlements become permanent

23 Hopewell Period 200 BCE to 500 CE Similar cultures spread across Eastern United States Built Large Complex Mounds Uncertain Purposes: Burial, Astronomy, etc Extensive trade between different regions

24 Hopewell Period 200 BCE to 500 CE Explosion of Art, Ritual & Ceremonial Architecture Elaborate burial customs Effigy Mounds in the shape of animals

25 Hopewell Period There are several Hopewell era sites in Wisconsin Mostly in Southern and Southwestern Wisconsin Hopewell peoples came from Illinois and Ohio and lived alongside other tribes Nicholls Mound in Trempealeau

26 Hopewell Culture Hopewell peoples settled on rivers and waterways They practiced agriculture: nuts, seeds & grasses They did make use of pottery Dwellings were round or oval, using posts and mats of reed or bark

27 Hopewell Period End of the Hopewell Period is not well understood Archaeological evidence suggests that Late Woodland peoples moved away from great mounds and settled in large wood-walled villages Conflict between tribes? Over farming of land caused starvation?

28 Mississippian-Late Woodland 400-500 CE until European Contact in 1500-1700s Similar cultures stretched from Mississippi to Atlantic & from Wisconsin to Mexico Extensive trade between regions

29 Mississippian-Late Woodland 400-500 CE until European Contact in 1500-1700s Large plazas around two central mounds: one for ceremonial purposes, one for the chiefs residence Largest settlement near Cahokia in Illinois

30 Mississippian-Late Woodland Between 1000-1200 CE Cahokia had a population that varied between 10,000-40,000. Larger than London, Paris and Rome at the time Culture was based on the cultivation of maize (corn) Cahokian society spread north into Wisconsin up the Mississippi and Rock River Valleys

31 Aztalan Mississippian peoples blended with descendants of older peoples. Major center at Aztalan on the Crawfish River

32 Aztalan Aztalan site discovered in 1830s near Lake Mills Village and mounds surrounded by log stockade Several archaeological digs there since

33 Aztalan Archaeologists believe Aztalan thrived between 900-1200 CE Site was abandoned; reasons unclear Stockade partially burned. War? Accident?

34 Late Woodlands: Mounds Dates uncertain Hopewell? Earlier? Mississippian? Blends of cultures? Most mounds in Wisconsin date after 500

35 Effigy Mounds: Waupaca County Sanders-Steiger Site: Fremont; Privately Owned NE Shore of Taylor Lake Mounds

36 Native Americans in Wisconsin: 1600

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