2The Four Major Culture Periods of Pre-Contact Native Americans
3What does “culture” mean? Culture is the set of learned beliefs, values, styles, and behaviors generally shared by members of a society or group
4What does “pre-contact” mean? Pre-contact, also known as Pre-Columbian, refers to the time period before Christopher Columbus visited the Americas (pre-1492)Before this!
5B.C. and A.D. vs. B.C.E. and C.E. What does B.C. stand for? Before ChristWhat does A.D. stand for?Anno Domini (In the year of Our Lord)What does B.C.E. stand for?Before Common EraWhat does C.E. stand for?Common Era
6BONUS!!!How many years ago was 2000 BCE? What year was 10,000 years ago?
7Origins of the American Indians Probably came from Eastern SiberiaMost likely crossed on the Bering Land Bridge, a natural bridge that crossed the Bering Strait (no longer exists)
10Paleoindian Culture 10,000-8,000 B.C.E. (North Carolina) Crossed Bering land bridge around 12,000 B.C.E.Indians of this time period were nomadic (moved from one place to another)Hunter-gatherersHunted large game, such as Wooly MammothsUsed stone weapons and tools
11BONUS!!Where is 1 CE on the map? How many years did the Paleoindian Period last? Where is 2012 CE?
12Questions:Which spear points were first used?Which ones were later used?3. What did they use them for?4. How were they constructed differently over time?
13Archaic Culture 8000 B.C.E. - 1000 B.C.E. Semi-nomadic – used base campsHunter-gatherersHunted smaller game, such as deerDeveloped atlatl (a short stick which uses leverage to achieve great velocity in spear throwing)Developed crude stone potteryUsed and developed more stone toolsBuried dead with care – belief in afterlife?
14BONUS!!How many years did the Archaic Period last? Which period was the longest? How do you know?
16Woodland Culture 1000 B.C.E. - 1000 C.E. Lived in semi-permanent villagesPracticed Horticulture (farming = secondary source)Hunted deerGathered foodGrew crops – squash, maize, sunflowersDeveloped clay pottery to cook and store foodDeveloped the bow and arrowBuried dead with great care
17BONUS!!How many years did the Woodland Period last?
19Mississippian Culture 1000 C.E C.E.Lived in permanent villagesPracticed agriculture (farming = primary source)Squash, beans, maize (corn)Built ceremonial moundse.g. Town Creek Indian MoundOrganized groups – chiefs, rule by consensus, priests, hereditary ruleMatrilineal Descent System – lineage and membership in groups are inherited from one's mother
20BONUS!!How many years did the Mississippian Period last? Why did this period end when it did?