The Four Major Culture Periods of Pre-Contact Native Americans
What does “culture” mean? Culture is the set of learned beliefs, values, styles, and behaviors generally shared by members of a society or group
What does “pre-contact” mean? Pre-contact, also known as Pre-Columbian, refers to the time period before Christopher Columbus visited the Americas (pre-1492) Before this!
B.C. and A.D. vs. B.C.E. and C.E. What does B.C. stand for? Before Christ What does A.D. stand for? Anno Domini (In the year of Our Lord) What does B.C.E. stand for? Before Common Era What does C.E. stand for? Common Era
BONUS!!! How many years ago was 2000 BCE? What year was 10,000 years ago?
Origins of the American Indians Probably came from Eastern Siberia Most likely crossed on the Bering Land Bridge, a natural bridge that crossed the Bering Strait (no longer exists)
Paleoindian Culture 10,000-8,000 B.C.E. (North Carolina) Crossed Bering land bridge around 12,000 B.C.E. Indians of this time period were nomadic (moved from one place to another) Hunter-gatherers Hunted large game, such as Wooly Mammoths Used stone weapons and tools
BONUS!! Where is 1 CE on the map? How many years did the Paleoindian Period last? Where is 2012 CE?
Questions: 1.Which spear points were first used? 2.Which ones were later used? 3. What did they use them for? 4. How were they constructed differently over time?
Archaic Culture 8000 B.C.E. - 1000 B.C.E. Semi-nomadic – used base camps Hunter-gatherers Hunted smaller game, such as deer Developed atlatl (a short stick which uses leverage to achieve great velocity in spear throwing) Developed crude stone pottery Used and developed more stone tools Buried dead with care – belief in afterlife?
BONUS!! How many years did the Archaic Period last? Which period was the longest? How do you know?
Woodland Culture 1000 B.C.E. - 1000 C.E. Lived in semi-permanent villages Practiced Horticulture (farming = secondary source) Hunted deer Gathered food Grew crops – squash, maize, sunflowers Developed clay pottery to cook and store food Developed the bow and arrow Buried dead with great care
BONUS!! How many years did the Woodland Period last?
Mississippian Culture 1000 C.E. - 1650 C.E. Lived in permanent villages Practiced agriculture (farming = primary source) Squash, beans, maize (corn) Built ceremonial mounds e.g. Town Creek Indian Mound Organized groups – chiefs, rule by consensus, priests, hereditary rule Matrilineal Descent System – lineage and membership in groups are inherited from one's mother
BONUS!! How many years did the Mississippian Period last? Why did this period end when it did?