Presentation on theme: "FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR—"— Presentation transcript:
1FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE SHADOW OF WAR—1933-1941 Chapter 34
2The London ConferenceRoosevelt’s willing to be an isolationist if it would help the domestic economy.66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goalRoosevelt pulls out. Why?Roosevelt pulls the rug out from underneath the conference and nothing is accomplishedResults:World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their own policies.Leads to an increase in nationalism.Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues
3Philippines and Russia Why was US ready to give up the Philippines?Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934—Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve-year period of economic tutelage.Gave up army bases, but keep Naval bases1933 US recognized the Bolshevik regime in USSR.Why?Anticommunists and Catholics objected.
4Becoming A Good Neighbor Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor PolicyImpact in Latin America.Reasons were somewhat selfish.Policy receives a test in 1938 when Mexicans seize American oil properties.Policy was a great success
5Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934) Secretary of State Cordell Hull.Aimed at both relief and recovery.Provision.Whittled down the worst parts of Hawley-Smoot.President had authority without consulting Congress. Benefits?Rationale for Act ?Get agreements with 21 countries
6Rise of Hitler in Germany Germans economically crushed by Versailles treaty. Desperate and resentfulHitler a powerful orator and politically aggressiveGermany has a potent industrial base and technological talent.US made things worse by refusing to ratify the league of nations, thus eliminating the moral strength of that body.
7Japan and Italy Japan also a growing threat. Resentful. Why?Growing increasingly militaristicLusted after space and resources of neighbors. Why?1934 terminated the naval Treaty and started aggressively building navy. American response?1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. Easily crushes it.Seeking glory and empire for Italy in AfricaLeague of Nation reaction? Reason?
8Better Keep to the Old Channel IsolationismWhy didn’t America Act?Distracted by the depressionVividly recall the losses of WWIfeel safe behind the protection of two oceans,largely believed that what happened in the rest of the world didn’t effect them.Rise of fascists increased desire to avoid entanglement..Johnson Debt Default Act.Better Keep to the Old Channel
9Congress Legislates Neutrality Who does the public now blame for WWI?Congress passes Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36 and ’37Basic Rule?
10Effect of Neutrality Acts Is an abandonment of Americas traditional policy of freedom of the high seas and the right of Americans to ship to both sides in a war.Effectively removed America from the arena as an agent that can stop or blunt war and aggression. Made America reactive and at the mercy of world events.Encouraged totalitarian regimes and hurt democratic ones, because they received no aid from US.
11America Dooms Loyalist Spain The Spanish Civil War ( ) shows fallacy of Neutrality policyFranco and other fascist rebels tried to overthrow the left-leaning but democratic government of Spain. Franco is aided by Hitler and Mussolini.Congress prohibits aid to EITHER side.Condemns democratic Spain to slow strangulationDictators believe that Democracies will not take action to stop them.
12Whittling Down the Big Stick State of American military compared to Germany and Japan.Americans attitude toward navy.Effect of depressionReaction to FDR’s call for increased military preparedness
13Appeasing Japan1937 Japan invades Manchuria with the intent of making it a Japanese colony. Why?Roosevelt refuses to call this a war. Why?Fall 1937 Roosevelt makes famous Quarantine SpeechWhat does he call for?How does Congress and Country react.Dec. 1937, USS Panay.Japan abuses Americans in China. Thinks US wimpy
14Hitler on the Rise1935 breaches Versailles treaty by reintroducing the draft.1936 marches troops into the demilitarized RhinelandBritain and France reaction.Hitler begins to persecute and discriminate against the Jews.1937 starts building the military at an aggressive pace,March 1938 Hitler marches without resistance into Austria
15Hitler then begins making demands for the Sudetenland
16Munich Conference Allies desperate to avoid war. Democracies have no real leverage. AppeasementGermany gets Sudetenland. What does it promise?Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”
17Hitler-Stalin PactFrance-England attempt to negotiate a mutual defense pact with Stalin.Why don’t they get one?August, 1939, Stalin-Hitler sign a non-aggression pact.Stalin’s motive?Seals the fate of Europe.Poland.Hitler’s demand on Poland.
18WWII BeginsPoland refuses and Germany marches in unleashing its Blitzkrieg 9/1/39.WWI has begun.Stalin moves into Eastern PolandEngland and France declare war, but can’t do much about Poland, which surrenders in three weeks.
19US Reaction to Fall of Poland Roosevelt issues proclamation of hostilities. Consequences?US attitude toward war.Roosevelt wants to amend Neutrality ActsKnows that European democracies are woefully unprepared and will not win on their own.Wants to lift the arms-sale restrictions entirely.But, knows that neither the nation nor Congress is ready for that.
20Cash and CarryFDR calls a special session of Congress; passes Neutrality Act of 1939Cash-and-CarrySelling point of Cash and Carry?Purchases from England and France help lift US economy
21Hitler Runs Amok April 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway. May attacks Netherlands and Belgium, then France.June 1940 France is forced to surrender
22Dunkirk Miracle of Dunkirk US shocked by quick fall of France Very significant because saves a huge chunk of British army.US shocked by quick fall of FranceImpact on public attitudeThreat to US of German domination Europe
23US Starts to ArmFDR calls for building of huge air fleet and a two-ocean navy that would check both Germany and Japan.Congress approves 37 BillionMore than the cost of WWI and 5-times larger than any annual budget for New Deal.Congress passes a conscription law, SeptAmerica’s first peace-time draft.Havana Conference of 1940
24Battle of Britain August 1940 Battle of Britain begins Battle rages for months.German advantagesBritish advantages.British planes chew up Luftwaffe
25Battle of Britain in US Edward R. Murrow. Impact of radio reports on Battle of Britain on US public opinion.Hitler eventually indefinitely postpones invasion—huge mistake.
26Fortress America?Issue: Whether to provide scarce resources to GB or to husband all resources so that available to USWhat do supporters of aid argue?What do those against aid argue?America First Committee.
27Destroyer Deal British in desperate need of destroyers. Why? Destroyer Deal. DetailsIsolationists screamIs a clear departure from neutralityBut public opinion supported all aid to GB short of war.
28Wilkie?In 1940 Republicans nominate Wendell Wilkie. Why such a surprise?Background.PersonalityAttitude toward New Dealforeign policy.Wilkie does not exploit resentment against FDR among isolationists
29FDR Three-peatFDR keeps the country in suspense, but decides to run for a third term.FDR pledges that “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”FDR wins easily, but not as triumphantly as the first two times.FDR might not have won if not for war. Also might not have run.
31Lend-Lease By late 1940 Cash and Carry not working for Britain. Why? FDR knows that Congress will not approve cash loans to allies.Proposes Lend-lease. How does it work?FDR proposes making the US the arsenal of democracy.This bill is vigorously debated throughout the nation.Passes in March, Was a clear declaration of hostility to Hitler.May, 1941 Germans sink first US merchant ship
32Atlantic CharterJune 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union and opens up a second front in his rear.Takes the pressure off GB and divides his army.What is he thinking?Soviets are on the edge of defeat.Roosevelt extends lend-Lease to Soviets. Extends 1 Bill. of what will eventually be 11 Billion.Atlantic Conference-8/41. First of a series of meetings between Churchill and Roosevelt.
33Atlantic CharterLeads to 8-point plan for post-war world. Atlantic Charter. Similar to Wilson’s 14 pointsPledges that countries will not have borders changedSelf determination and return to pre-war governmentsLeague of nations type organization.
34U.S. Destroyers And Hitler’s U-boats Lend-Lease to GB was faltering. Why?FDR response.Clashes with Subs—9/41—Greer attacked without damage10/41—Kearny attacked but not sunk10/41—Reuben James sunk with loss of more than 100.Congress pulls Neutrality legislation and authorizes the arming of Merchant ships.
35In the meantime……out in the Pacific Japan is mired in China. US is pressuring them to get out,Japan is heavily dependent on US steel, oil, gasoline and other war supplies. If US cuts them off, Japan is toast.FDR reluctant to impose sanctions. Why?Late 1940 US does impose sanctions.1941 freeze Japanese assets and ends all oil shipments.Japan’s choicesUS has broken code and knows that Japan plans to attack somewhere.Warnings from US to Pearl Harbor are late in arriving.
36Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carriers launch waves of attack planes. Destroy most of US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.8 battleships, most of aircraft, 3000 casualties.But, three US carriers were out to sea and were spared.Japanese failed to destroy repair facilities, allowing US to stay at Pearl and repair the fleet. Big mistake.Next day—Congress declares war.FDR SpeechJapan and Germany are allies—Germany and Italy then declare war on US. U.S. declares war on Germany. We are in.