London Conference Tydings-McDuffie Act Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act Tripartite Pact Johnson Debt Default Act Spanish-Civil War Quarantine Speech Russo-German nonaggression pact
Cash-and-Carry Neutrality Act of 1939 Battle of Britain Wendell L. Willkie Lend-Lease Act Atlantic Charter Attack of Pearl Harbor
Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt a very influential person during this time? What was a main thing that Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to change when he became President? What caused WW2 to start in the European Countries?
The London conference was oringaly set up in 1933, the goal for this conference was to try and create an international fix to the Great Depression. The United states did not send a representative and as a result nothing was accomplished.
The United States never really liked having the islands of the Philippines and all they did was cause them problems so in 1934 the Tydings-McDuffie Act was passed which said the Philippines would become independent in 12 years. In 1934 Franklin D. Roosevelt recognized the Soviet Union in a hope of possibly trading with them, but this angered the Americans because the Soviet Union was a communist nation.
When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in his inaugural address that he wanted the United States to become better Neighbors with the Latin American countries. He took the U.S. military out of the Latin American countries. The Mexicans tried to to test this good neighbor policy that FDR put into place by taking American oil properties, but FDR did not over react and did not use military force proving he was serious about this policy.
Franklin D. Roosevelt and his Secretary of State Cordell Hull thought that lower tariffs helped generate more trade so he passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act which lowered tariffs. This started a trend of having lower tariffs rather than high tariffs which lasted until after WW2.
After WW1 and all the countries realized the depression that was created some of their leaders turned to totalitarian regimes which basically means a dictatorship. Germany, Italy, and the USSR are some of the countries that went to this. Germany and Italys leaders connected together and eventually Japan joined them with the Tripartite Pact.
This group of three nations started to prepare for war by attacking small countries that could not defend themselves. Even thought the U.S. knew this was wrong they did not want to get pulled into the European problems like they did in WW1. One way they tried to prevent this was with the Johnson Debt Default Act which said if a country had a debt with the U.S. they could not borrow anymore money from the U.S.
In 1935, 1936, and 1937 congress passed Neutrality Acts hoping to stay out of wars that they should not be involved in and to try not to make the same mistake made in WW1, but with WW2 came different circumstances and they said they would stay neutral no matter what.
The Spanish-Civil War was in a way a preview of WW2 because it was the fascist fighting against the republic and although the U.S. wanted the republic to win they could not offer and did not offer any help, but Hitler and other fascist leaders helped out the fascist leader in Spain who was then the victor of the war.
In 1937 Japan went and invaded china, but since Franklin D. Roosevelt did not consider this a war trade was not cut off between them and the U.S. Also during this time Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a speech called the Quarantine Speech hoping to make the American citizens be against the communist countries.
During this Hitler was busy doing things over in Germany, first he violated the Treaty of Versailles in two ways and then he wrote a book which led to the Germans persecuting the Jewish people. Also he took Austria and said that he wanted the German people to be most of the population in Sudetenland.
In 1939 Germany and Russia signed the Russo- German Nonaggression Pact which basically said they would not fight against each other. As a result Hitler decided he wanted to attack Poland, knowing that Britain and France said if Germany attacked Poland they would retaliate they attacked Poland anyway. This now meant that WW2 had started. Due to the neutrality acts the U.S. was not allowed to get involved, but FDR passed a Neutrality Act of 1939 which said the U.S. could sell war materials on a Cash-and-Carry basis
The German military used a very quick, but brutal attacking system which helped them conquer many places very quickly. They used planes, tanks, and ground troops. The attack on France was very quick and short and France surrendered very quickly, luckily the French troops were able to get away and now Britain was the last European country between the U.S. and Germany
Due to the fact that Britain was the last country between the U.S. and Germany Franklin D. Roosevelt started to strengthen the military by having 1.2 million troops trained each year and 800,000 reserves. The main concern was that Germany would try and attack the different colonies of Latin America
Next country to be attacked by Germany was Britain, Hitler decided to start by using bombing to gain control of the air, but as a result Britains air force fought back and the first all air war called the Battle of Britain. The isolationists and interventionists both tried to have FDR on there side and as a result the U.S. started to be leaning towards intervention in the war.
In 1940 was another election year and Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated to run for his third term as President against Wendell L. Willkie. One thing that he promised if elected was to not send Americans to a foreign war, this promise ended up back firing against him. Franklin D. Roosevelt won 449-82
At this time Britain was in need for money, but Franklin D. Roosevelt did not want to be owed thoughts of money like in WW1, so instead of loaning money he wanted to loan them weapons and such. As a result the Lend-Lease Act was passed and in little time America had sent over $50 billion dollars worth of supplies to the Allie troops.
In 1941 Germany attacked Russia which made the democracies happy because Germany and Russia would beat each other up. Also during this time the Atlantic Charter was formed and agreed to by the Soviet Union, Britain, and America it went along with some of Wilsons 14 points from WW1.
Trying to get the war materials from the U.S. to Britain turned out to be very challenging with the German U-Boats around so FDR used the escorting system by having the merchant ships escorted to Iceland by U.S. warships and then Britain would have to figure it out from there. Due to the attacks by Germans on U.S. warships congress trashed the neutrality act of 1939 and said that merchant ships could be armed when in combat areas.
Japan was still trying to become a big power nation and were still in control of the war in China so the U.S. created an embargo against them and cut off oil to them which angered them. The U.S. figured that they would try to retaliate, but they were not sure how and they never thought the Japanese would attack Hawaii. They were wrong and on December 7, 1941 Japan had a surprise attack of Pearl Harbor.
Now that they had been forced into the war the U.S. was not going to hold back anything, because for most of the war the U.S. had been wanting to stop everything that Japan and Germany had been doing. On December 8, 1941 U.S. declare war on Japan, then Germany and Italy dclared against the U.S. and the U.S. declared right back, the U.S. was officailly in WW2.
1-What was the goal of the London Conference? 2-What Act released the Philippines from the U.S.? 3-What is the Tripartite Pact? 4-Why was the Spanish-Civil War a preview of WW2? 5-How did Germany attack France? 6-How did the U.S. help out Britain? What Act was this? 7-True of False Franklin D. Roosevelt had more than 2 terms as President. 8-True or False The Atlantic Charter had some ideas from Wilsons 14 points.
1-Create an international fix to the Great depression. 2-Tydings-McDuffe Act 3-Pact created by Germany, Italy, and Japan 4-Because it was Fascist government v.s. Republican government 5-very quickly with planes, tanks, and ground troops 6-By giving them war materials and supplies and it was the Lend-Lease Act 7-True 8-True