The London Conference Roosevelt’s willing to be an isolationist if it would help the domestic economy. 66 nations meet. Purpose and primary goal Roosevelt pulls the rug out from underneath the conference and nothing is accomplished Unwilling to sacrifice the possibility of domestic recovery for international cooperation Results: World depression gets worse and everyone pursues their own policies. Leads to an increase in nationalism. Reduces chances for international cooperation on other issues
Philippines and Russia Why was US ready to give up the Philippines? $$$$ Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934—Provided for the independence of the Philippines after a twelve-year period of economic tutelage. Gave up army bases, but keep Naval bases 1933 US recognized the Bolshevik regime in USSR. Why? Trade $$$
Becoming A Good Neighbor Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy Impact in Latin America Non Intervention Marines removed from Haiti Cuba released from Platt Amendment Panama Reasons were somewhat selfish. Policy receives a test in 1938 when Mexicans seize American oil properties. Policy was a great success
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934) Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Aimed at both relief and recovery. Whittled down the worst parts of Hawley-Smoot. President had authority without consulting Congress. Benefits? Faster Less high pressure lobbying Rationale for Act ? Get agreements with 21 countries
Totalitarianism Stalin – USSR Mussolini – Italy Hitler - Germany
Rise of Hitler in Germany Germans economically crushed by Versailles treaty. Desperate and resentful Hitler a powerful orator and politically aggressive Germany has a potent industrial base and technological talent. US made things worse by refusing to ratify the League of Nations, thus eliminating the moral strength of that body.
Hitler Withdrew from League of Nations Re-arming Rome-Berlin Axis
Japan and Italy Japan also a growing threat. Resentful. Why? Growing increasingly militaristic Lusted after space and resources of neighbors. Why? 1934 terminated the Washington Naval Treaty and started aggressively building navy. American response? Tripartite Pact – Germany, Italy, Japan 1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia. Easily crushes it. Seeking glory and empire for Italy in Africa League of Nation reaction? Reason?
Isolationism Why didn’t America Act? Distracted by the depression Vividly recall the losses of WWI feel safe behind the protection of two oceans, largely believed that what happened in the rest of the world didn’t effect them. Rise of fascists increased desire to avoid entanglement. Johnson Debt Default Act – can’t borrow $ from US if you aren’t paying your debts Better Keep to the Old Channel
Congress Legislates Neutrality Who does the public now blame for WWI? Senator Gerald Nye “merchants of death” Congress passes Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36 and ’37 Basic Rule?
Effect of Neutrality Acts Is an abandonment of Americas traditional policy of freedom of the high seas and the right of Americans to ship to both sides in a war. Effectively removed America from the arena as an agent that can stop or blunt war and aggression. Made America reactive and at the mercy of world events. Encouraged totalitarian regimes and hurt democratic ones, because they received no aid from US.
America Dooms Loyalist Spain The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) shows fallacy of Neutrality policy Franco and other fascist rebels tried to overthrow the left-leaning but democratic government of Spain. Franco is aided by Hitler and Mussolini. Congress prohibits aid to EITHER side. Condemns democratic Spain to slow strangulation Dictators believe that Democracies will not take action to stop them.
Whittling Down the Big Stick State of American military compared to Germany and Japan. America failed to build up arms to deter aggressors Americans attitude toward navy. Decline in strength Effect of depression Sparing taxpayers Reaction to FDR’s call for increased military preparedness No support, too little too late
Appeasing Japan 1937 Japan invades Manchuria with the intent of making it a Japanese colony. Why? Resources Roosevelt refuses to call this a war. Why? Neutrality Acts Fall 1937 Roosevelt makes famous Quarantine Speech What does he call for? Quarantine the aggressors How does Congress and Country react. Protests - isolationism Dec. 1937, USS Panay Japanese bombed and sank our boat Japan abuses Americans in China. Thinks US wimpy
Hitler on the Rise 1935 breaches Versailles treaty by reintroducing the draft. 1936 marches troops into the demilitarized Rhineland Britain and France reaction. Hitler begins to persecute and discriminate against the Jews. 1937 starts building the military at an aggressive pace, March 1938 Hitler marches without resistance into Austria Hitler then begins making demands for the Sudetenland
Munich Conference Allies desperate to avoid war. Munich Conference 9/38 Democracies have no real leverage. Appeasement Germany gets Sudetenland. What does it promise? Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”
Hitler-Stalin Pact/ Non-aggression Treaty France-England attempt to negotiate a mutual defense pact with Stalin. Why don’t they get one? Mutual suspicions August, 1939, Stalin-Hitler sign a non- aggression pact. Stalin’s motive? Seals the fate of Europe. Poland. Hitler’s demand on Poland.
WWII Begins Poland refuses and Germany marches in unleashing its Blitzkrieg 9/1/39. WWII has begun. Stalin moves into Eastern Poland England and France declare war, but can’t do much about Poland, which surrenders in three weeks.
US Reaction to Fall of Poland Roosevelt issues proclamation of neutrality. Consequences? US attitude toward war. Roosevelt wants to amend Neutrality Acts Knows that European democracies are unprepared and will not win on their own. Wants to lift the arms-sale restrictions entirely. But, knows that neither the nation nor Congress is ready for that.
Cash and Carry FDR calls a special session of Congress; passes Neutrality Act of 1939 Cash-and-Carry Selling point of Cash and Carry? America could avoid loans, war debts, and torpedoing of American arms-carriers Purchases from England and France help lift US economy
Hitler Runs Amok April 1940 Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway. May attacks Netherlands and Belgium, then France. June 1940 France is forced to surrender Miracle of Dunkirk Very significant because saves a huge chunk of British army. US shocked by quick fall of France Impact on public attitude Scared – if Britain falls, Hitler will have all of Europe Threat to US of German domination Europe
US Starts to Arm FDR calls for building of huge air fleet and a two- ocean navy - check both Germany and Japan. Congress approves $37 Billion More than the cost of WWI and 5-times larger than any annual budget for New Deal. Congress passes a Conscription Law, Sept. 1940. America’s first peace-time draft. Havana Conference of 1940 Orphaned colonies in Latin America US Agreed to share with its twenty New World neighbors to responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine
Battle of Britain August 1940 Battle of Britain begins Battle rages for months. German advantages British advantages. British planes chew up Luftwaffe
Battle of Britain in US Impact of radio reports on Battle of Britain on US public opinion. Sympathy Hitler eventually indefinitely postpones invasion—huge mistake.
Fortress America? Issue: Whether to provide scarce resources to GB or to husband all resources so that available to US What do supporters of aid argue? What do those against aid argue? America First Committee Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
Destroyer Deal British in desperate need of destroyers. Why? German Submarines Destroyer Deal Britain would get 50 US destroyers Britain would hand over 8 defensive bases for 99 years Isolationists scream Is a clear departure from neutrality But public opinion supported all aid to GB short of war.
Wilkie? In 1940 Republicans nominate Wendell Wilkie. Wilkie does not exploit resentment against FDR among isolationists
FDR Three-peat FDR keeps the country in suspense, but decides to run for a third term. FDR pledges that “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.” FDR wins easily, but not as triumphantly as the first two times. FDR might not have won if not for war. Also might not have run.
Lend-Lease By late 1940 Cash and Carry not working for Britain. Why? Britain running out of $$$ FDR knows that Congress will not approve cash loans to allies. Proposes Lend-lease. How does it work? Send limitless supply of arms to the victims of the aggression Keep the war “over there” FDR proposes making the US the arsenal of democracy. This bill is vigorously debated throughout the nation. Passes in March, 1941. Was a clear declaration of hostility to Hitler. May, 1941 Germans sink first US merchant ship Robin Moor
Atlantic Charter June 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union and opens up a second front in his rear. Takes the pressure off GB and divides his army. What is he thinking? Take oil rich Soviet Union and have two free hands to defeat Britain Soviets are on the edge of defeat. Roosevelt extends Lend-Lease to Soviets. Extends $1 Billion of what will eventually be $11 Billion. Atlantic Conference -8/41. First of a series of meetings between Churchill and Roosevelt.
Atlantic Charter Leads to 8-point plan for post-war world. Atlantic Charter. Similar to Wilson’s 14 points Pledges that countries will not have borders changed Self determination and return to pre-war governments League of nations type organization.
U.S. Destroyers And Hitler’s U-boats Lend-Lease to GB was faltering. Why? Sunk by German subs FDR response Convoy system Clashes with Subs— 9/41—Greer attacked without damage 10/41—Kearny attacked but not sunk 10/41—Reuben James sunk with loss of more than 100. Congress pulls Neutrality legislation and authorizes the arming of Merchant ships.
In the meantime……out in the Pacific Japan is mired in China. US is pressuring them to get out Japan is heavily dependent on US steel, oil, gasoline and other war supplies. If US cuts them off, Japan is toast. FDR reluctant to impose sanctions. Why? He didn’t want to goad Tokyo into attacking the oil-rich Dutch East Indies Late 1940 US does impose sanctions. 1941 freeze Japanese assets and ends all oil shipments. Japan’s choices Give up Attack the oil supplies in SE Asia US has broken code and knows that Japan plans to attack somewhere. Warnings from US to Pearl Harbor are late in arriving.
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese aircraft carriers launch waves of attack planes. Destroy most of US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor. 8 battleships, most of aircraft, 3000 casualties. But, three US carriers were out to sea and were spared. Japanese failed to destroy repair facilities, allowing US to stay at Pearl and repair the fleet. Big mistake. Next day—Congress declares war. Japan and Germany are allies—Germany and Italy then declare war on US. U.S. declares war on Germany. We are in.