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Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Development of France and England.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages 500-1500 A.D. Development of France and England."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages A.D. Development of France and England

2 Development of France and England Germanic tribes –migrate across Europe –push/pull factors –herders and farmers –different culture from Romans –carve Western Europe into small kingdoms

3 Development of France Franks: A.D. –strongest of Germanic tribes Clovis –conquered Gaul –united Franks in central Europe –converted to Christianity (religion of Gaul people) –supported by Pope –Merovingians

4 Development of France Charles Martel –Carolingian –rallied Frankish warriors against Moors (Muslims) Battle of Tours – 732 A.D. –Charles Martel stopped Muslim advance into Europe –Pope pleased with Carolingians (Muslims were threat to papacy)

5 Development of France Charlemagne –Hero of Middle Ages (Holy Barbarian, Charles the Great) –46 year reign – loved to battle –organized kingdom of Franks with laws –builds empire conquests reunited much of old Roman empire –In 800, Pope Leo III asks for help with nobles rebelling in Rome Frankish armies crush rebellion –crowned Holy Roman Emperor for helping pope Christmas day 800 in Rome thus was born the Holy Roman Empire

6 Development of France Charlemagne –wanted a united Christian Europe worked with Church to spread Christianity –appointed powerful nobles to rule regions gave them land (fiefs) –missi dominici officials sent out by Charlemagne controlled provincial rulers (nobles) –ordered one of first great migrations made hundreds of thousands move to Russia if they didnt want to become Christians

7 Charlemagne

8 Development of France Treaty of Verdun in 843 A.D. –divided empire: Italy, Germany, France Feudalism and manorialsim flourished –feudal warfare Successors to Charlemagne had little power over great feudal nobles

9 Development of England Angles, Saxons, and Vikings settled in England Feudalism developed English rulers kept kingdom united 1066 King Edward the Confessor dies –no heir –council of nobles chose Harold

10 Development of England Duke William of Normandy –claims throne –raises army –backed by pope Battle of Hastings in 1066 –William and knights defeat King Harold –last invasion of England

11 Battle of Hastings

12 Development of England Bayeux Tapestry –chronicles Norman conquest – –valuable piece of historical evidence

13 Development of England William the Conqueror King William I –crowned king of England Christmas day 1066 –French-speaking nobles dominated England –over next 300 years, gradual blending of Norman-French & Anglo-Saxon customs, languages, traditions –Latin influence on English language

14 Development of England King William I –firm control –fiefs to Church and Norman lords –monitored who built castles and where Domesday Book –complete and thorough census –helped build efficient tax collecting system –no one could escape name compared to Gods final judgment day

15 Development of England Henry II –1154 inherits throne –expanded customs into law (royal law) sent traveling justices to enforce –foundations of English Common Law legal system based on custom and court rulings protects property –early jury system –married Eleanor of Aquitaine

16 Development of England and France Eleanor of Aquitaine –first married to Frances King Louis VII –joined Second Crusade wore armor and rode horse with other Crusaders –she ended marriage to Louis VII –married Englands King Henry II –8 children Richard (the Lion-Hearted) John –spurred several sons to overthrow Henry II –revolt failed –15 years in prison

17 Eleanor of Aquitaine

18 Development of England Richard I –known as the Lion-Hearted –freed Eleanor from prison –popular national hero –reigned 10 years, less than 1 year in England –spent reign fighting, causing debt and taxes –a leader of Third Crusade went for religious reasons John ruled England for him –on way home, captured held prisoner 14 months until ransomed at great cost –brother John attempted to take English throne –dies without heir

19 Richard I (Lionheart) John I

20 Development of England and France John I –faced 3 powerful enemies King Philip II of France –lost war & all of Englands land in France –English expelled from France Pope Innocent III –battled over selection of Archbishop of Canterbury –excommunicated John and placed England under interdict English nobles –angered by oppressive taxes & other abuses of power

21 Development of England John I –provoked English nobles into revolt –economic difficulties and high inflation –civil war nobles took sides for or against John –forced to sign Magna Carta in 1215 Great Charter

22 Development of England Magna Carta –1 st document in English history where monarch does not have complete or absolute power created limited monarchy –ideas still influence systems of government in many countries around world today

23 Development of England Magna Carta –places King of England under law –statement of civil liberties for noblemen protects privileges of lords recognizes legal rights of townspeople and Church –king agrees not to raise taxes without consulting the Great Council –representative body of lords and clergy –in 1200s, evolves into Parliament

24 Norman Conquest = William of Normandy defeats Anglo-Saxons at Hastings Domesday Book = William I uses this survey as a basis for taxation. 1160s–1180s Common Law = Henry II lays foundation for English legal system Magna Carta = John signs this document limiting royal power and extending rights Model Parliament = Edward I summons Parliament, which includes representatives of common people. Evolution of English Government

25 Development of England Parliament –developed into 2 house legislature House of Lords –nobles and high clergy (upper house) House of Commons –knights and middle-class citizens, or commoners (lower house) –over centuries, gained crucial power of the purse right to approve new taxes checked or limited power of monarch –many practices of U.S. Congress have roots in practices of British Parliament


27 Successful Monarchs in France made the throne hereditary added to their lands by playing rival nobles against each other won the support of the Church built an effective bureaucracy Granted charters to new towns Introduced a standing army Filled government positions with loyal middle- class officials Introduced new national tax Quadrupled land holdings Checked up on local officials Expanded royal courts Outlawed private wars. Ended serfdom in his lands Left France an efficient, centralized monarchy Monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom. However, under strong Capetian kings, such as Philip II and Louis IX, they slowly increased royal power. Philip IICapetians Louis IX 1

28 Development of France Hugh Capet, count of Paris –nobles elect him to throne 987 A.D. –weak, no threat to powerful nobles –lands smaller than many of his vassals –he and heirs increase royal powers –play rival nobles against each other –increase royal lands –won support of Church and middle-class townspeople

29 Development of France Philip II –also known as Philip Augustus –defeated John I and expelled English –most powerful ruler in Europe before death in 1223 –strengthened royal government used paid middle-class officials (more loyal) instead of nobles quadrupled royal land holdings

30 Development of France Louis IX –most admired of his time –generous, noble, devoted to justice & chivalry –deeply religious, declared a saint –led France in 2 wars against Muslims –improved royal government outlawed private wars ended serfdom created strong national feeling (nationalism) –established absolute monarchy (complete authority) –St. Louis named for Louis IX

31 Louis IX – St. Louis

32 Development of France Philip IV –established Estates General –tried to collect new taxes from clergy threatened to arrest those who did not pay –power struggle with Pope Boniface VIII forbade taxation of clergy without papal consent threatened to excommunicate clergy who paid –seized Boniface when traveling near French border escaped, but badly beaten humiliated and never returned to Rome died the next year

33 Development of France Estates General –established by Philip IV in 1302 in attempt to tax clergy caused Babylonian Captivity led to Great Schism –French legislature includes reps from all 3 estates, or classes –clergy, nobles, townspeople –did not develop same role at British Parliament never gained power of purse never served as balance to royal power

34 Development of France and England France –Absolute Monarchy England –Limited Monarchy

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