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Development of France and England

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1 Development of France and England
Middle Ages A.D. Development of France and England

2 Development of France and England
Germanic tribes migrate across Europe push/pull factors herders and farmers different culture from Romans carve Western Europe into small kingdoms Diff culture from Romans: small communities – no cities unwritten customs – no written laws warrior nobles swore loyalty to king in exchange for weapons & loot

3 Development of France Franks: 400-700 A.D. Clovis
strongest of Germanic tribes Clovis conquered Gaul united Franks in central Europe converted to Christianity (religion of Gaul people) supported by Pope Merovingians Islam appears in Arabia in 622. Gaul – former Roman province. United central Europe – France & Germany 1st united kingdom after fall of Rome – lasted couple hundred years. Began family of Merovingians – were “do nothing kings” after Clovis.

4 Development of France Charles Martel Battle of Tours – 732 A.D.
Carolingian rallied Frankish warriors against Moors (Muslims) Battle of Tours – 732 A.D. Charles Martel stopped Muslim advance into Europe Pope pleased with Carolingians (Muslims were threat to papacy) Pepin – founder of Carolingian empire - father of Charles Martel Martel – title given later – instrument of war. Muslims are building a huge empire – and cross into France. European term for Muslims coming into Europe. cross Strait of Gibraltar in 711 Pope owes Carolingians Papacy= rule of pope After Battle of Tours, Muslims continued to rule most of Spain, but went no further into Europe.

5 Development of France Charlemagne Hero of Middle Ages
(Holy Barbarian, Charles the Great) 46 year reign – loved to battle organized kingdom of Franks with laws builds empire conquests reunited much of old Roman empire In 800, Pope Leo III asks for help with nobles rebelling in Rome Frankish armies crush rebellion crowned Holy Roman Emperor for helping pope Christmas day 800 in Rome thus was born the Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne son of Pepin the Short (not really short) about 6’11” Pepin fought wars against Lombards in northern Italy who threatened Pope. Defeated Lombards and gave land to Pope = became known as Papal States. Pope become feudal lord. In exchange, Pope gives Pepin the Short title of King of Franks. Builds empire: France, Germany, part of Italy. Fought many campaigns for Pope.

6 Development of France Charlemagne wanted a united Christian Europe
worked with Church to spread Christianity appointed powerful nobles to rule regions gave them land (fiefs) missi dominici officials sent out by Charlemagne controlled provincial rulers (nobles) ordered one of first great migrations made hundreds of thousands move to Russia if they didn’t want to become Christians (MIH see dohm in NEE kee) tell of new laws Charlemagne standardized money Charlemagne allowed his daughters to learn reading and writing. rumored Charlemagne couldn’t read or write Charlemagne Legacy: strong efficient govts furthered blending of German, Roman, & Christian traditions

7 Charlemagne

8 Feudalism and manorialsim flourished
Development of France Treaty of Verdun in 843 A.D. divided empire: Italy, Germany, France Feudalism and manorialsim flourished feudal warfare Successors to Charlemagne had little power over great feudal nobles Charlemagne died 814 – empire soon fell apart as heirs battled for power. believed in primogeniture groomed 1st son to succeed him, but son died just before Charlemagne did. 2nd son Louis the Pious had become an abbot & was spiritually minded Charlemagne takes him out of the monastery tried to groom him to become emperor but he was incompetent emperor When Louis the Pious dies, empire divided between 3 of Charlemagne’s grandsons.

9 Development of England
Angles, Saxons, and Vikings settled in England Feudalism developed English rulers kept kingdom united 1066 King Edward the Confessor dies no heir council of nobles chose Harold Harold was brother-in-law to Edward.

10 Development of England
Duke William of Normandy claims throne raises army backed by pope Battle of Hastings in 1066 William and knights defeat King Harold last invasion of England Normandy in France.

11 Battle of Hastings Normans build castles to control towns and other strategic posts along way. and later throughout England Introduction of Norman castles to England.

12 Development of England
Bayeux Tapestry chronicles Norman conquest valuable piece of historical evidence

13 Development of England
William the Conqueror → King William I crowned king of England Christmas day 1066 French-speaking nobles dominated England over next 300 years, gradual blending of Norman-French & Anglo-Saxon customs, languages, traditions Latin influence on English language English– one of Germanic languages French – one of Romance languages English received much of its Latin influence when Normans conquered England. Gradually, big English landholders were replaced by Normans. -- eventually almost the whole ruling class was changed. Coronation story – cheers in Westminster Abbey as William was crowned made guards outside think a riot had begun so they set fire to surrounding buildings.

14 Development of England
King William I firm control fiefs to Church and Norman lords monitored who built castles and where Domesday Book complete and thorough census helped build efficient tax collecting system no one could escape name compared to God’s final judgment day Domesday Book – no one could escape – name compared to God’s final judgment day

15 Development of England
Henry II 1154 inherits throne expanded customs into law (royal law) sent traveling justices to enforce foundations of English Common Law legal system based on custom and court rulings protects property early jury system married Eleanor of Aquitaine a few kings between William and Henry II could not write new laws – had to follow accepted customs Common Law = royal law Jury – traveling justices and local officials -- determined which cases were brought to trial -- ancestor of today’s grand jury Later another jury evolved – composed of 12 neighbors of accused -- ancestor of today’s trial jury

16 Development of England and France
Eleanor of Aquitaine first married to France’s King Louis VII joined Second Crusade wore armor and rode horse with other Crusaders she ended marriage to Louis VII married England’s King Henry II 8 children Richard (“the Lion-Hearted”) John spurred several sons to overthrow Henry II revolt failed 15 years in prison Eleanor 11 yrs older than Henry II.

17 Eleanor of Aquitaine

18 Development of England
Richard I known as “the Lion-Hearted” freed Eleanor from prison popular national hero reigned 10 years, less than 1 year in England spent reign fighting, causing debt and taxes a leader of Third Crusade went for religious reasons John ruled England for him on way home, captured held prisoner 14 months until ransomed at great cost brother John attempted to take English throne dies without heir

19 Richard I (Lionheart) John I

20 Development of England and France
John I faced 3 powerful enemies King Philip II of France lost war & all of England’s land in France English expelled from France Pope Innocent III battled over selection of Archbishop of Canterbury excommunicated John and placed England under interdict English nobles angered by oppressive taxes & other abuses of power One of most unpopular English kings.

21 Development of England
John I provoked English nobles into revolt economic difficulties and high inflation civil war nobles took sides for or against John forced to sign Magna Carta in 1215 “Great Charter” Economic difficulties – not his fault -- remember Richard I spent reign fighting, causing debt and taxes Legend -- Lost crown jewels taking a short cut across the Wash in 1216 -- got caught out by tide He and many nobles supposedly get very sick from being in water so long trying to recover crown jewels. May have died of dysentery (intestinal problem) as result.

22 Development of England
Magna Carta 1st document in English history where monarch does not have complete or absolute power created limited monarchy ideas still influence systems of government in many countries around world today Written in Latin on parchment. Copies to churches throughout England. 4 times each year, sheriff had to read aloud in county courts

23 Development of England
Magna Carta places King of England under law statement of civil liberties for noblemen protects privileges of lords recognizes legal rights of townspeople and Church king agrees not to raise taxes without consulting the Great Council representative body of lords and clergy in 1200s, evolves into Parliament Amer colonists – no taxation w/o representation

24 Evolution of English Government
1 1066 Norman Conquest = William of Normandy defeats Anglo-Saxons at Hastings. 1086 Domesday Book = William I uses this survey as a basis for taxation. 1160s–1180s Common Law = Henry II lays foundation for English legal system. 1215 Magna Carta = John signs this document limiting royal power and extending rights. 1295 Model Parliament = Edward I summons Parliament, which includes representatives of common people.

25 Development of England
Parliament developed into 2 house legislature House of Lords nobles and high clergy (upper house) House of Commons knights and middle-class citizens, or commoners (lower house) over centuries, gained crucial “power of the purse” right to approve new taxes checked or limited power of monarch many practices of U.S. Congress have roots in practices of British Parliament U.S. Congress – 2 house legislature Senate and House of Reps


27 Successful Monarchs in France
1 Successful Monarchs in France Monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom. However, under strong Capetian kings, such as Philip II and Louis IX, they slowly increased royal power. Philip II Capetians Louis IX Granted charters to new towns Introduced a standing army Filled government positions with loyal middle-class officials Introduced new national tax Quadrupled land holdings made the throne hereditary added to their lands by playing rival nobles against each other won the support of the Church built an effective bureaucracy Checked up on local officials Expanded royal courts Outlawed private wars. Ended serfdom in his lands Left France an efficient, centralized monarchy

28 Hugh Capet, count of Paris
Development of France Hugh Capet, count of Paris nobles elect him to throne 987 A.D. weak, no threat to powerful nobles lands smaller than many of his vassals he and heirs increase royal powers play rival nobles against each other increase royal lands won support of Church and middle-class townspeople

29 Development of France Philip II also known as Philip Augustus
defeated John I and expelled English most powerful ruler in Europe before death in 1223 strengthened royal government used paid middle-class officials (more loyal) instead of nobles quadrupled royal land holdings

30 Development of France Louis IX most admired of his time
generous, noble, devoted to justice & chivalry deeply religious, declared a saint led France in 2 wars against Muslims improved royal government outlawed private wars ended serfdom created strong national feeling (nationalism) established absolute monarchy (complete authority) St. Louis named for Louis IX

31 Louis IX – St. Louis

32 Development of France Philip IV established Estates General
tried to collect new taxes from clergy threatened to arrest those who did not pay power struggle with Pope Boniface VIII forbade taxation of clergy without papal consent threatened to excommunicate clergy who paid seized Boniface when traveling near French border escaped, but badly beaten humiliated and never returned to Rome died the next year Boniface seized 1304

33 Development of France Estates General
established by Philip IV in 1302 in attempt to tax clergy caused Babylonian Captivity led to Great Schism French legislature includes reps from all 3 estates, or classes clergy, nobles, townspeople did not develop same role at British Parliament never gained power of purse never served as balance to royal power

34 Development of France and England
Absolute Monarchy England Limited Monarchy

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