Presentation on theme: "Development of France and England"— Presentation transcript:
1Development of France and England Middle Ages A.D.Development ofFrance and England
2Development of France and England Germanic tribesmigrate across Europepush/pull factorsherders and farmersdifferent culture from Romanscarve Western Europe into small kingdomsDiff culture from Romans:small communities – no citiesunwritten customs – no written lawswarrior nobles swore loyalty to kingin exchange for weapons & loot
3Development of France Franks: 400-700 A.D. Clovis strongest of Germanic tribesClovisconquered Gaulunited Franks in central Europeconverted to Christianity(religion of Gaul people)supported by PopeMerovingiansIslam appears in Arabia in 622.Gaul – former Roman province.United central Europe – France & Germany1st united kingdom after fall of Rome – lasted couple hundred years.Began family of Merovingians – were “do nothing kings” after Clovis.
4Development of France Charles Martel Battle of Tours – 732 A.D. Carolingianrallied Frankish warriors against Moors (Muslims)Battle of Tours – 732 A.D.Charles Martel stopped Muslim advance into EuropePope pleased with Carolingians(Muslims were threat to papacy)Pepin – founder of Carolingian empire- father of Charles MartelMartel – title given later – instrument of war.Muslims are building a huge empire – and cross into France.European term for Muslims coming into Europe.cross Strait of Gibraltar in 711Pope owes CarolingiansPapacy= rule of popeAfter Battle of Tours, Muslims continued to rule most of Spain,but went no further into Europe.
5Development of France Charlemagne Hero of Middle Ages (Holy Barbarian, Charles the Great)46 year reign – loved to battleorganized kingdom of Franks with lawsbuilds empireconquests reunited much of old Roman empireIn 800, Pope Leo III asks for help with nobles rebelling in RomeFrankish armies crush rebellioncrowned Holy Roman Emperor for helping popeChristmas day 800 in Romethus was born the Holy Roman EmpireCharlemagne son of Pepin the Short (not really short)about 6’11”Pepin fought wars against Lombards in northern Italy who threatened Pope.Defeated Lombards and gave land to Pope = became known as Papal States.Pope become feudal lord.In exchange, Pope gives Pepin the Short title of King of Franks.Builds empire: France, Germany, part of Italy.Fought many campaigns for Pope.
6Development of France Charlemagne wanted a united Christian Europe worked with Church to spread Christianityappointed powerful nobles to rule regionsgave them land (fiefs)missi dominiciofficials sent out by Charlemagnecontrolled provincial rulers (nobles)ordered one of first great migrationsmade hundreds of thousands move to Russiaif they didn’t want to become Christians(MIH see dohm in NEE kee)tell of new lawsCharlemagne standardized moneyCharlemagne allowed his daughters to learn reading and writing.rumored Charlemagne couldn’t read or writeCharlemagne Legacy: strong efficient govtsfurthered blending of German, Roman, & Christian traditions
8Feudalism and manorialsim flourished Development of FranceTreaty of Verdun in 843 A.D.divided empire: Italy, Germany, FranceFeudalism and manorialsim flourishedfeudal warfareSuccessors to Charlemagne had little power over great feudal noblesCharlemagne died 814 – empire soon fell apart as heirs battled for power.believed in primogenituregroomed 1st son to succeed him, but son died just before Charlemagne did.2nd son Louis the Pious had become an abbot & was spiritually mindedCharlemagne takes him out of the monasterytried to groom him to become emperorbut he was incompetent emperorWhen Louis the Pious dies, empire divided between 3 of Charlemagne’s grandsons.
9Development of England Angles, Saxons, and Vikings settled in EnglandFeudalism developedEnglish rulers kept kingdom united1066 King Edward the Confessor diesno heircouncil of nobles chose HaroldHarold was brother-in-law to Edward.
10Development of England Duke William of Normandyclaims throneraises armybacked by popeBattle of Hastings in 1066William and knights defeat King Haroldlast invasion of EnglandNormandy in France.
11Battle of HastingsNormans build castles to control towns and other strategic posts along way.and later throughout EnglandIntroduction of Norman castles to England.
12Development of England Bayeux Tapestrychronicles Norman conquestvaluable piece of historical evidence
13Development of England William the Conqueror → King William Icrowned king of England Christmas day 1066French-speaking nobles dominated Englandover next 300 years, gradual blending ofNorman-French & Anglo-Saxoncustoms, languages, traditionsLatin influence on English languageEnglish– one of Germanic languagesFrench – one of Romance languagesEnglish received much of its Latin influence when Normans conquered England.Gradually, big English landholders were replaced by Normans.-- eventually almost the whole ruling class was changed.Coronation story – cheers in Westminster Abbey as William was crowned made guards outside think a riot had begunso they set fire to surrounding buildings.
14Development of England King William Ifirm controlfiefs to Church and Norman lordsmonitored who built castles and whereDomesday Bookcomplete and thorough censushelped build efficient tax collecting systemno one could escapename compared to God’s final judgment dayDomesday Book – no one could escape– name compared to God’s final judgment day
15Development of England Henry II1154 inherits throneexpanded customs into law(royal law)sent traveling justices to enforcefoundations of English Common Lawlegal system based on custom and court rulingsprotects propertyearly jury systemmarried Eleanor of Aquitainea few kings between William and Henry IIcould not write new laws – had to follow accepted customsCommon Law = royal lawJury – traveling justices and local officials-- determined which cases were brought to trial-- ancestor of today’s grand juryLater another jury evolved – composed of 12 neighbors of accused-- ancestor of today’s trial jury
16Development of England and France Eleanor of Aquitainefirst married to France’s King Louis VIIjoined Second Crusadewore armor and rode horse with other Crusadersshe ended marriage to Louis VIImarried England’s King Henry II8 childrenRichard (“the Lion-Hearted”)Johnspurred several sons to overthrow Henry IIrevolt failed15 years in prisonEleanor 11 yrs older than Henry II.
18Development of England Richard Iknown as “the Lion-Hearted”freed Eleanor from prisonpopular national heroreigned 10 years, less than 1 year in Englandspent reign fighting, causing debt and taxesa leader of Third Crusadewent for religious reasonsJohn ruled England for himon way home, capturedheld prisoner 14 months until ransomed at great costbrother John attempted to take English thronedies without heir
20Development of England and France John Ifaced 3 powerful enemiesKing Philip II of Francelost war & all of England’s land in FranceEnglish expelled from FrancePope Innocent IIIbattled over selection of Archbishop of Canterburyexcommunicated John and placed England under interdictEnglish noblesangered by oppressive taxes & other abuses of powerOne of most unpopular English kings.
21Development of England John Iprovoked English nobles into revolteconomic difficulties and high inflationcivil warnobles took sides for or against Johnforced to sign Magna Carta in 1215“Great Charter”Economic difficulties – not his fault-- remember Richard I spent reign fighting, causing debt and taxesLegend -- Lost crown jewels taking a short cut across the Wash in 1216-- got caught out by tideHe and many nobles supposedly get very sick from being in water so long trying to recover crown jewels.May have died of dysentery (intestinal problem) as result.
22Development of England Magna Carta1st document in English history where monarch does not have complete or absolute powercreated limited monarchyideas still influence systems of government in many countries around world todayWritten in Latin on parchment.Copies to churches throughout England.4 times each year, sheriff had to read aloud in county courts
23Development of England Magna Cartaplaces King of England under lawstatement of civil liberties for noblemenprotects privileges of lordsrecognizes legal rights of townspeople and Churchking agrees not to raise taxes without consulting the Great Councilrepresentative body of lords and clergyin 1200s, evolves into ParliamentAmer colonists – no taxation w/o representation
24Evolution of English Government 11066Norman Conquest = William of Normandy defeats Anglo-Saxons at Hastings.1086Domesday Book = William I uses this survey as a basis for taxation.1160s–1180sCommon Law = Henry II lays foundation for English legal system.1215Magna Carta = John signs this document limiting royal power and extending rights.1295Model Parliament = Edward I summons Parliament, which includes representatives of common people.
25Development of England Parliamentdeveloped into 2 house legislatureHouse of Lordsnobles and high clergy (upper house)House of Commonsknights and middle-class citizens, or commoners (lower house)over centuries, gained crucial “power of the purse”right to approve new taxeschecked or limited power of monarchmany practices of U.S. Congress have roots in practices of British ParliamentU.S. Congress – 2 house legislatureSenate and House of Reps
27Successful Monarchs in France 1Successful Monarchs in FranceMonarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom. However, under strong Capetian kings, such as Philip II and Louis IX, they slowly increased royal power.Philip IICapetiansLouis IXGranted charters to new townsIntroduced a standing armyFilled government positions with loyal middle-class officialsIntroduced new national taxQuadrupled land holdingsmade the throne hereditaryadded to their lands by playing rival nobles against each otherwon the support of the Churchbuilt an effective bureaucracyChecked up on local officialsExpanded royal courtsOutlawed private wars.Ended serfdom in his landsLeft France an efficient, centralized monarchy
28Hugh Capet, count of Paris Development of FranceHugh Capet, count of Parisnobles elect him to throne 987 A.D.weak, no threat to powerful nobleslands smaller than many of his vassalshe and heirs increase royal powersplay rival nobles against each otherincrease royal landswon support of Churchand middle-class townspeople
29Development of France Philip II also known as Philip Augustus defeated John I and expelled Englishmost powerful ruler in Europe before death in 1223strengthened royal governmentused paid middle-class officials (more loyal)instead of noblesquadrupled royal land holdings
30Development of France Louis IX most admired of his time generous, noble, devoted to justice & chivalrydeeply religious, declared a saintled France in 2 wars against Muslimsimproved royal governmentoutlawed private warsended serfdomcreated strong national feeling (nationalism)established absolute monarchy(complete authority)St. Louis named for Louis IX
32Development of France Philip IV established Estates General tried to collect new taxes from clergythreatened to arrest those who did not paypower struggle with Pope Boniface VIIIforbade taxation of clergy without papal consentthreatened to excommunicate clergy who paidseized Boniface when traveling near French borderescaped, but badly beatenhumiliated and never returned to Romedied the next yearBoniface seized 1304
33Development of France Estates General established by Philip IV in 1302 in attempt to tax clergycaused Babylonian Captivityled to Great SchismFrench legislatureincludes reps from all 3 estates, or classesclergy, nobles, townspeopledid not develop same role at British Parliamentnever gained power of pursenever served as balance to royal power
34Development of France and England Absolute MonarchyEnglandLimited Monarchy