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B&S Chapter 5 Student’s Copy ppt.

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1 B&S Chapter 5 Student’s Copy ppt.

2 Tissues are group of cells similar in structure and substance
Arranged in a pattern, and specialized for specific task

3 Histology Study of tissue


5 Epithelial (Epithelium)
Protects body and organs, lining of intestines, respiratory, urinary and blood vessels Classified by shape and arrangement of cells:

6 Squamous (shape) Flat and irregular

7 Cuboidal (shape) square

8 Columnar (shape) Long and narrow

9 Simple (layer) Single layer

10 Stratified (layer) Layers, Think of Filo dough

11 Transitional (layer) Crepe-like Like the bladder

12 Put em’ all together… The shapes and layers can be put together
Stratified squamous like the skin Simple columnar like the lining of the intestine Simple squamous like the hand

13 Mitosis of Cells Skin is able to modify itself rapidly due to mitosis of cells

14 Epithelium repairs itself quickly due to all the wear and tear those cells take

15 The cells of some of the epithelium secrete mucus, sweat, digestive juices
The dig. Tract does this to help absorb food The resp. tract does this to protect from foreign objects getting in to our resp. tracts

16 Glands Epithelial cells are the secreting cells of many glands
__________ Endocrine –_ductless glands that release hormones directly into bloodstream like the pancreas, releases insulin to the bloodstream Exocrine – release secretions into organs, body cavities or outside of body. Also like the pancreas, releases enzymes through common bile duct to the duodenum for digestion

17 Connective Tissue Supporting fabric of organs and other parts of body

18 Connective Tissue Has large amount of nonliving material between cells – intercellular material

19 Connective Tissue is classified according to its degree of hardness

Is loosely held together with semi-liquid material between the cells and it includes adipose and areolar tissue such as…

21 SOFT CONN. TISSUE Adipose stores fat, insulator, padding
Areolar is loosely held together, found in membranes around vessels, organs,between muscles and under skin

22 Fibrous Connective Tissue
Provides strength and elasticity

23 Fibrous Conn. Tissue Has Collagen – white, flexible protein, found in elastic capsules around organs, periosteum around bone

24 Types of fibrous conn. tissue
TENDON: holds muscle to bone LIGAMENT: holds bone to bone. Ligaments look like ropes, ropes can hold bone to bone because the rope or ligament is so strong (in your Leg is a bone, ligaments hold bones to bones) or (ligament is like cement, it’s strong like bones

Fascia (bands) – bands or sheets that support and hold membranes in place Superficial fascia – contains fat. Under skin Deep fascia – no fat, covers and protects muscle with muscle sheaths Blood vessels, spinal cord, and brain are encased in fascia tissue


27 Repair of fibrous tissue
New blood vessels form in area of wound Replaced by white fibrous connective tissue Scar formed (may be stronger than original tissue)

28 SCAR Repair begins when blood is clotted and a scab forms at the surface to protect the underlying tissue. From the damaged capillaries, new vessels form and branch out to the injured tissue Cells that produce are made= collagen. Collagen closes the gap of wound and a scar forms

29 KELOID EXCESS production of collagen forms and a large, raised scar called a keloid forms

30 Hard Connective Tissue
Cartilage – Common form – gristle, tough elastic, translucent between spine segments, ends of bones, ears, nose cartilage covered by layer of fibrous tissue Bone – osseous tissue Similar to cartilage but impregnated with Ca salts that harden. Within bone- blood vessels, nerves and marrow.

31 Liquid Connective Tissue
Blood and lymph

32 Nerve Tissue Central organizing system – brain
Nerves communicate with brain Nerves from all areas join here to form spinal cord

33 Neuron Basic structural unit
Consists of nerve cell body + branches called fibers

34 Cell body is in center of the neuron, axon is the long stick-like body pictured in blue and gold-carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body and off to the small synaptic end (on far lower right of neuron) dendrite is the sprawling out structures that look like branches-carries nerve impulses through the branches to the center of the neuron and to the cell body

35 DENDRITE Carries messages or nerve impulses from the brain, to the cell body and through the cell body

36 AXON Carries messages away from the cell body and on into the synapse where pain for example, can be felt

37 Nerve tissue (cluster of neurons)
Supported by ordinary connective tissue except in the brain and spinal cord

38 Neuroglia Is supporting tissue of the brain and spinal cord
This tissue resembles kleenex tissue that surrounds nerves, neurons, and spinal cord

39 Peripheral nerves – outside of spinal cord
Neurilemma – thin coating on some axons on peripheral nerves Repair themselves (slow and uncertain process)

40 Myelin Insulates nerve fibers – white in color

41 Unmyelinated Some axons, all dentrites, all cell bodies of the brain
Referred to as gray matter

42 Muscle Tissue Produces movement by contraction
Skeletal muscle – voluntary muscle that contracts at will Cardiac muscle (myocardium) – involuntary Smooth muscle (visceral) – forms walls of organs of the ventral cavity (exclude the heart) example: Digestive tract


44 Did you know? There is muscle tissue at the base of body hair
Makes a goosebump when air passes between the space and hair over the body. The muscle contracts causing a bump

45 Muscle tissue repairs itself slowly and often with connective tissue

46 Membranes –thin sheets of tissue
May cover surface, partition, lining of hollow organs May contain cells that secrete lubricants to ease organ movement as in the joints Epithelial membranes – outer surface is epithelium, then a layer of connective tissue (strength), and sometimes a layer of smooth muscle

47 EPITHELIAL MEMBRANES The outer surface of the epithelial membrane is made of epith. cells, then there is sometimes a layer of connective tissue (for strength) covering that and sometimes even a layer of smooth muscle

48 Mucous membrane (mucosa) line tubes that open to outside of body example – digestive tract, respiratory tract Mucus serves to protect from foreign substances

49 Serous Membranes – serosa – Lines the closed ventral body cavities
Pleurae – lines thoracic cavity Pericardium – sac which encloses the heart Peritoneum – lines the walls of abdominal cavity, covers the organs of the abdomen. Forms supporting and protective structure for the organs Mesothelium – epithelium covering serous membranes (smooth, lubricated – decreases friction of organ movement)

50 Really Important!!! Parietal layer – membrane attached to the wall of the cavity or sac Visceral layer – attached to the organs

51 Membranes and disease Peritonitis – infection of the peritoneum (after appendicitis). Can lead to sepsis and death Membranes can act as pathways for infection Rheumatoid arthritis – synovial membrane in joints is inflamed and swollen. Cartilage is replaced by fibrous connective tissue over time

52 Tumors/Neoplasm – abnormal growth of cells
Benign – confined cells adhere and may be encapsulated grow as a single mass (better chance of removal). “Benign means you’re fine” BUT… Can cause damage by growing a compressing healthy tissue example - brain

53 Malignant tumor – can cause death no matter where they occur
Malignant tumor – can cause death no matter where they occur. “mal” = bad Cells spread by lymph or blood Cancer cells reach their new location and begin to grow (metastasis)

54 Classifications of Tumors
Carcinoma – occur in epithelial tissue Spreads by lymph

55 Sarcoma – found in connective tissue
Spread by blood – often to lungs

56 Melanomas – originate in birthmark or mole

57 Gliomas – originate in connective tissue of brain

58 Lymphoma – originate in lymph
Lipoma – originates in adipose tissue

59 Cancer Symptoms Unaccountable weight loss, unusual bleeding or discharge Persistent indigestion, chronic hoarseness or cough Changes in the color or size of moles, sore which doesn’t heal, lumps, white spots in mouth

60 Detection and Treatment of Cancer
Biopsy – remove tissue for examination Ultrasound – reflected high frequency sound wave Computed tomography (C.T. scan) x-rays used to produce cross section pictures MRI –(magnetic resonance imaging) use magnetic fields and radio waves to show changes in soft tissues


62 Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Use of lasers

63 The End

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