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1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 4 TISSUES & MEMBRANES.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 4 TISSUES & MEMBRANES."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 4 TISSUES & MEMBRANES

2 2TISSUES A TISSUE IS MADE OF MANY SIMILAR CELLS WITH SIMILAR FUNCTIONS. A TISSUE IS MADE OF MANY SIMILAR CELLS WITH SIMILAR FUNCTIONS. EACH TYPE OF TISSUE IS DISTIGUISHED BY THE STRUCTURE OF ITS CELLS AND THE FUNCTIONS IT PERFORMS. EACH TYPE OF TISSUE IS DISTIGUISHED BY THE STRUCTURE OF ITS CELLS AND THE FUNCTIONS IT PERFORMS. THERE ARE FOUR BASIC TYPES:- EPITHELIAL TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE

3 3 EPITHELIAL TISSUES EPITHELIAL TISSUES ARE CLASSIFIED BY THE NUMBER OF CELL LAYERS AND THE SHAPE OF THE CELLS IN THE TISSUES. EPITHELIAL TISSUES ARE CLASSIFIED BY THE NUMBER OF CELL LAYERS AND THE SHAPE OF THE CELLS IN THE TISSUES. THE FUNCTION OF EACH EPITHELIAL TISSUE DEPENDS ON ITS SPECIFIC LOCATION AND THE TYPE OF THE TISSUE. THE FUNCTION OF EACH EPITHELIAL TISSUE DEPENDS ON ITS SPECIFIC LOCATION AND THE TYPE OF THE TISSUE. THESE FUNCTIONS INCLUDE:- PROTECTION PROTECTION ABSORPTION ABSORPTION FILTERATION FILTERATION SECRETION SECRETION

4 4 TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES SIMLE EPITHELIUM:- SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM:- STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

5 5 SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF FLAT CELLS. MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF FLAT CELLS. FOUND IN THE HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, LUNGS AND KIDNEYS. FOUND IN THE HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, LUNGS AND KIDNEYS. FUNCTIONS ARE FILTERATION, SECRETION AND ABSORPTION. FUNCTIONS ARE FILTERATION, SECRETION AND ABSORPTION.

6 6 SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

7 7

8 8 SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF CUBE - SHAPED CELLS. MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF CUBE - SHAPED CELLS. FOUND IN THE KIDNEYS, OVARIES AND SOME GLANDS. FOUND IN THE KIDNEYS, OVARIES AND SOME GLANDS. FUNCTIONS ARE ABSORPTION AND SECRETION. FUNCTIONS ARE ABSORPTION AND SECRETION.

9 9 SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

10 10 SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

11 11 SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF COLUMN – SHAPED CELLS PLUS GOBLET CELLS. MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF COLUMN – SHAPED CELLS PLUS GOBLET CELLS. THE GOBLET CELLS SECRETE MUCUS. THE GOBLET CELLS SECRETE MUCUS. FOUND IN THE STOMACH, INTESTINES AND MANY GLANDS. FOUND IN THE STOMACH, INTESTINES AND MANY GLANDS. FUNCTIONS ARE ABSORPTION AND SECRETION. FUNCTIONS ARE ABSORPTION AND SECRETION.

12 12 SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

13 13 SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

14 14 PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF CILIATED COLUMNAR CELLS THAT LOOK LIKE THEY ARE MORE THAN ONE LAYER PLUS SOME COBLET CELLS THAT SECRETE MUCUS. MADE BY A SINGLE LAYER OF CILIATED COLUMNAR CELLS THAT LOOK LIKE THEY ARE MORE THAN ONE LAYER PLUS SOME COBLET CELLS THAT SECRETE MUCUS. FOUND IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT LINNING. FOUND IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT LINNING. MUCUS TRAP DUST PARTICLES AND THE BEATING CILIA REMOVE THE MUCUS. MUCUS TRAP DUST PARTICLES AND THE BEATING CILIA REMOVE THE MUCUS.

15 15 PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

16 16 PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

17 17 STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM MADE BY SEVERAL LAYERS OF CUBOIDAL CELLS THAT BECOME FLATTENED AS THEY APPROACH THE TISSUE SURFACE. MADE BY SEVERAL LAYERS OF CUBOIDAL CELLS THAT BECOME FLATTENED AS THEY APPROACH THE TISSUE SURFACE. FOUND ON THE SKIN SURFACE, LINNIG OF MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS AND VAGINA. FOUND ON THE SKIN SURFACE, LINNIG OF MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS AND VAGINA. FUNCTION FOR PROTECTION. FUNCTION FOR PROTECTION.

18 18 STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

19 19 STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

20 20 TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM MADE BY SEVERAL LAYERS OF LARGE ROUNDED CELLS THAT BECOME FLAT WHEN STRETCHED. MADE BY SEVERAL LAYERS OF LARGE ROUNDED CELLS THAT BECOME FLAT WHEN STRETCHED. FOUND IN THE INTERIOR LINNING OF THE URINARY BLADDER. FOUND IN THE INTERIOR LINNING OF THE URINARY BLADDER. FUNCTION IS TO PERMIT STRETCHING OF THE URINARY BLADDER WALL. FUNCTION IS TO PERMIT STRETCHING OF THE URINARY BLADDER WALL.

21 21 TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

22 22 TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

23 23 CONNECTIVE TISSUES THEY ARE THE MOST ABUNDANT TISSUES IN THE BODY THAT SUPPORT AND BIND OTHER TISSUES TOGETHER. THEY ARE THE MOST ABUNDANT TISSUES IN THE BODY THAT SUPPORT AND BIND OTHER TISSUES TOGETHER. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER:- LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE ADIPOSE TISSUE ADIPOSE TISSUE SPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUE:- CARTILAGE – BONE – BLOOD. CARTILAGE – BONE – BLOOD.

24 24 LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MADE BY A LOOSE ARRANGEMENT OF COLLAGENOUS & ELASTIC FIBERS IN A GEL-LIKE MATERIAL & SOME SCATTERD FIBROBLASTS. MADE BY A LOOSE ARRANGEMENT OF COLLAGENOUS & ELASTIC FIBERS IN A GEL-LIKE MATERIAL & SOME SCATTERD FIBROBLASTS. FOUND UNDER THE SKIN, IN INTERNAL ORGANS, BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES. FOUND UNDER THE SKIN, IN INTERNAL ORGANS, BLOOD VESSELS AND NERVES. FUNCTION FOR ATTACHMENT OF THE SKIN & SUPPORT OF INTERNAL ORGANS. FUNCTION FOR ATTACHMENT OF THE SKIN & SUPPORT OF INTERNAL ORGANS.

25 25 LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

26 26 LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

27 27 ADIPOSE TISSUE MADE BY CLOSELY PACKED FAT CELLS. MADE BY CLOSELY PACKED FAT CELLS. FOUND UNDER THE SKIN AND AROUND INTERNAL ORGANS. FOUND UNDER THE SKIN AND AROUND INTERNAL ORGANS. FUNCTION FOR ENERGY STORAGE AS FAT, BODY INSULATION AND FORMS PROTECTIVE CUSHIONS AROUND THE INTERNAL ORGANS. FUNCTION FOR ENERGY STORAGE AS FAT, BODY INSULATION AND FORMS PROTECTIVE CUSHIONS AROUND THE INTERNAL ORGANS.

28 28 ADIPOSE TISSUE

29 29 ADIPOSE TISSUE

30 30 FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE MADE BY TIGHT PACKED COLLAGENOUS SEPARATED BY ROWS OF FIBROBLASTS. MADE BY TIGHT PACKED COLLAGENOUS SEPARATED BY ROWS OF FIBROBLASTS. FOUND IN TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, SKIN AND FIBROUS CAPSULES AROUND SOME INTERNAL ORGANS. FOUND IN TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, SKIN AND FIBROUS CAPSULES AROUND SOME INTERNAL ORGANS. FUNCTION FOR ATTACHMENT OF BONES TO MUSCLES, BONES TO BONES AND PROTECTION OF INTERNAL ORGANS. FUNCTION FOR ATTACHMENT OF BONES TO MUSCLES, BONES TO BONES AND PROTECTION OF INTERNAL ORGANS.

31 31 FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

32 32 FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

33 33 ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE MADE BY LOTS OF ELASTIC FIBERS PLUS SOME SCATTERED FIBROBLASTS. MADE BY LOTS OF ELASTIC FIBERS PLUS SOME SCATTERED FIBROBLASTS. FOUND IN LUNGS, AIR PASSAGES AND BLOOD VESSELS. FOUND IN LUNGS, AIR PASSAGES AND BLOOD VESSELS. FUNCTION FOR FLEXIBILITY BY ALLOWING EXPANSION & CONTRACTION OF THESE STRUCTURES. FUNCTION FOR FLEXIBILITY BY ALLOWING EXPANSION & CONTRACTION OF THESE STRUCTURES.

34 34 SPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUE CARTILAGE:- HYALINE CARTILAGE IN THE JOINTS. HYALINE CARTILAGE IN THE JOINTS. ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN LARYNX & EAR. ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN LARYNX & EAR. FIBROCARTILAGE IN VERTEBRAL DISKS. FIBROCARTILAGE IN VERTEBRAL DISKS. BONE:- HARDEST & MOST RIGID TISSUE. BLOOD:- LIQUID PLASMA & BLOOD CELLS

35 35 HYALINE CARTILAGE

36 36 HYALINE CARTILAGE

37 37 ELASTIC CARTILAGE

38 38 ELASTIC CARTILAGE

39 39 FIBROCARTILAGE

40 40BONE

41 41 BONE

42 42BLOOD

43 43BLOOD

44 44 MUSCLE TISSUES SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE:- SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE:- VOLUNTARY MUSCLES ATTACHED TO BONES THAT ALLOW BODY MOVEMENT. SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE:- SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE:- INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES FOUND INSIDE HOLLOW ORGANS AND BLOOD VESSELS. CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE:- CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE:- INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE FOUND IN THE HEART.

45 45 SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

46 46 SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

47 47 CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

48 48 CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

49 49 SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE

50 50 SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE

51 51 NERVE TISSUE MADE OF NEURONS {NERVE CELLS} AND NEUROGLIA {SUPPORTING CELLS}. MADE OF NEURONS {NERVE CELLS} AND NEUROGLIA {SUPPORTING CELLS}. NEURONS FUNCTION FOR IMPULSE FORMATION AND TRANSMISSION. NEURONS FUNCTION FOR IMPULSE FORMATION AND TRANSMISSION. NEUROGLIA FUNTION IS TO NOURISH, INSULATE AND PROTECT THE NEURONS. NEUROGLIA FUNTION IS TO NOURISH, INSULATE AND PROTECT THE NEURONS. NERVE TISSUE FORM THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD AND NERVES. NERVE TISSUE FORM THE BRAIN, SPINAL CORD AND NERVES.

52 52 NERVE TISSUE

53 53 NERVE TISSUE

54 54 BODY MEMBRANES BODY MEMBRANES ARE THIN SHEETS OF TISSUES THAT LINE CAVITIES, COVER SURFACES, SEPARATE TISSUES OR ORGANS. BODY MEMBRANES ARE THIN SHEETS OF TISSUES THAT LINE CAVITIES, COVER SURFACES, SEPARATE TISSUES OR ORGANS. THEY ARE MADE OF EITHER EPITHELIAL & CONNECTIVE TISSUE TOGETHER OR CONNECTIVE TISSUES ONLY. THEY ARE MADE OF EITHER EPITHELIAL & CONNECTIVE TISSUE TOGETHER OR CONNECTIVE TISSUES ONLY.

55 55 EPITHELIAL MEMBRANES MADE FROM SHEETS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE OVERLYING A THIN SUPPORTING FRAMEWORK OF LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE. MADE FROM SHEETS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE OVERLYING A THIN SUPPORTING FRAMEWORK OF LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE. THERE ARE THREE TYPES:- SEROUS MEMBRANES:- PERICARDIUM SEROUS MEMBRANES:- PERICARDIUM MUCOUS MEMBRANES:- RESPIRATORY MUCOUS MEMBRANES:- RESPIRATORY CUTANOUS MEMBRANES:- SKIN CUTANOUS MEMBRANES:- SKIN

56 56 CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES MADE BY FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE. MADE BY FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE. EXAMPLES INCLUDE:- THREE MENINGES AROUND THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD. THREE MENINGES AROUND THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD. PERICHONDRIUM COVERS CARTILAGE. PERICHONDRIUM COVERS CARTILAGE. PERIOSTEUM COVERS BONE SURFACES. PERIOSTEUM COVERS BONE SURFACES. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES COVER JOINTS. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES COVER JOINTS.


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