Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Message in a Bottle A satellite journey through the Gulf Stream.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Message in a Bottle A satellite journey through the Gulf Stream."— Presentation transcript:

1 Message in a Bottle A satellite journey through the Gulf Stream

2 Overview of Presentation The historical message and importance of the Gulf Stream The historical message and importance of the Gulf Stream The path of the global surface currents The path of the global surface currents A look at the concepts of formation of ocean gyres, and special features A look at the concepts of formation of ocean gyres, and special features Discussion of the formation, properties and position of the eddies Discussion of the formation, properties and position of the eddies

3 The Message Historical Importance Historical Importance Exploration and Trade provided navigational knowledge of the North Atlantic Gyre Exploration and Trade provided navigational knowledge of the North Atlantic Gyre

4 The Message Historical Importance Historical Importance Ben Franklins map of fastest route across the Atlantic based on his voyage measurements of Ben Franklins map of fastest route across the Atlantic based on his voyage measurements of

5 The Message Historical Importance Historical Importance U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey map (1890) showing the North Wall --the edge of this western boundary current U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey map (1890) showing the North Wall --the edge of this western boundary current

6 The Path Tracking the Floaters Tracking the Floaters Glass fishing floats, sneakers and toys become tools to measure currents Glass fishing floats, sneakers and toys become tools to measure currents Carried across the Pacific by the strong Kuroshio current Carried across the Pacific by the strong Kuroshio current

7 The Path Global surface currents are the result of wind driven force Global surface currents are the result of wind driven force Moving water is deflected like the air by the Coriolis effect Moving water is deflected like the air by the Coriolis effect The denser water is deflected more than the above air The denser water is deflected more than the above air

8 The Path Tracking the Floaters Tracking the Floaters Path of water is influenced by global wind bands – Trades and Westerlies Path of water is influenced by global wind bands – Trades and Westerlies Friction slows the deflected water throughout a depth of about 150 meters Friction slows the deflected water throughout a depth of about 150 meters

9 The Path Tracking the Floaters Tracking the Floaters Current path is also affected by landforms Current path is also affected by landforms Gulf Stream turns sharply to the east off Cape Hatteras, NC Gulf Stream turns sharply to the east off Cape Hatteras, NC

10 The Path Tracking the Floaters Tracking the Floaters Drift bottles deployed in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been followed by satellites Drift bottles deployed in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been followed by satellites Data explains current motion Data explains current motion OTO floats YOTO floats

11 What does this drifter path tell you about the direction of the Gulf Stream?

12 Major Oceanic surface currents

13 The Understanding Special features Origins in the Gulf of Mexico and waters merge with Caribbean currents Origins in the Gulf of Mexico and waters merge with Caribbean currents Travels around the Straits of Florida parallel to East coast Travels around the Straits of Florida parallel to East coast There is a river in the ocean… Mathew Maury, 1855 There is a river in the ocean… Mathew Maury, 1855

14 The Understanding Special features Carries heat energy toward the continent of Europe Carries heat energy toward the continent of Europe Some surface water becomes cooler, more saline and sinks near Norway Some surface water becomes cooler, more saline and sinks near Norway

15 The Understanding Special features Gulf Stream water temperatures are substantially warmer than the waters to the North Gulf Stream water temperatures are substantially warmer than the waters to the North Act as a barrier between Sargasso Sea and North Labrador current Act as a barrier between Sargasso Sea and North Labrador current

16 The Understanding Gulf stream water temperatures are significantly warmer down to depths of 1000 meters Gulf stream water temperatures are significantly warmer down to depths of 1000 meters

17 The Understanding Volume of water transported is from 55 to 106 cubic meters per second Volume of water transported is from 55 to 106 cubic meters per second Current velocity is dependent on the width and depth of current Current velocity is dependent on the width and depth of current

18 The Understanding Special features Geostrophic balance exists in the N. Atlantic as the Coriolis effect piles water into a bulge ( Sargasso Sea) that gravity carries downhill Geostrophic balance exists in the N. Atlantic as the Coriolis effect piles water into a bulge ( Sargasso Sea) that gravity carries downhill

19 The Understanding Differences in sea height are seen with satellite altimetry Differences in sea height are seen with satellite altimetry Pockets of warm or cold water may be trapped Pockets of warm or cold water may be trapped

20 The Science Twist Unique meanders Gulf stream energy is diverted by changes in speed Gulf stream energy is diverted by changes in speed Eddies form -- rotating pockets that spin off the main stream Eddies form -- rotating pockets that spin off the main stream

21 The Science Twist Unique meanders Warm- core eddies are found usually to the north of the north wall Warm- core eddies are found usually to the north of the north wall Spin clockwise Spin clockwise WCR = Warm core rings WCR = Warm core rings

22 The Science Twist Unique meanders Cold- core eddies are found to the south of the Gulf Stream Cold- core eddies are found to the south of the Gulf Stream Spin counterclockwise Spin counterclockwise Migrate into the Sargasso Sea Migrate into the Sargasso Sea

23 The Science Twist Unique meanders Warm water expands and is noticed by a bulge in the sea surface Warm water expands and is noticed by a bulge in the sea surface Cold water eddies are detected by a depression Cold water eddies are detected by a depression

24 The Science Twist Mesoscale eddies are km in diameter Mesoscale eddies are km in diameter WCR drift back into Gulf Stream WCR drift back into Gulf Stream Cold eddies may last several years Cold eddies may last several years

25 The Science Twist Unique meanders In the Gulf of Mexico, eddies are studied for their influence on hurricanes In the Gulf of Mexico, eddies are studied for their influence on hurricanes Hurricane Opal and Bret were fueled by WCRs Hurricane Opal and Bret were fueled by WCRs

26 Message in a Bottle Describe several factors that determine the flow of the Gulf Stream? Describe several factors that determine the flow of the Gulf Stream? What is the direction of flow of the worlds major ocean currents? What is the direction of flow of the worlds major ocean currents? What is the relationship between heat transport and the eddies? What is the relationship between heat transport and the eddies?


Download ppt "Message in a Bottle A satellite journey through the Gulf Stream."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google