Presentation on theme: "U.S. Public Education 1776-1826. Public Education in the United States has been a political creation. Likewise, it has been a social creation, an economic."— Presentation transcript:
Public Education in the United States has been a political creation. Likewise, it has been a social creation, an economic creation, and a cultural creation. Public Education in the United States has had a complicated creation Public Education in the United States is attributed to many different sources
American Education began in the New England Colonies The year was 1607, and the place was Jamestown—not in New England, and not focused on public education. MA had education laws in 1642 and 1647 MA, Conn., NH each had laws requiring parents to make sure children could read, knew the laws, knew Bible, and were skilled in a trade. Towns had to hire teachers. Puritans and Congregationalists believed education necessary to read Bible. South was not as focused on public ed.
18 th Century (1700s) Trends in education noted that schooling should be: public in purpose, public in access, public in control, and public in support.
1700s Growing number of immigrants. Religious freedoms were important; therefore, there was fear of a state religion. Some groups wanted schools taught in their languages (Germans, Dutch, French, Swedes, Danish) Country growing westward. American Regionalism, Sectionalism, and Localism was beginning. Religious diversity had begun to erode support for public ed. Could you have both?
1700s continued Colonial govts. began to turn educational issues over to communities. Colonial govts. began to give more freedoms to alternative private schools that supported local interests. Commercial interests began to be involved in schools. Merchants and landowners established academies for workers’ children.
1700s continued Commercial interests led to doctrine of cultural pluralism—fostering greater religious and cultural freedoms which further weakened government’s influence in education. Cultural Pluralsim spoke more to “anything goes.” By mid 1700s, schooling more commercially focused, but little quality control. Less public schools; more commercial schools.
Early 1800s continued When American Revolution occurred, there was a reversal of attitudes. Revolution redefined the meaning of political community -new republican (representative) political system -new conception of citizenship -new belief that education should promote citizenship.
Revolutionary Times “Great Awakening” or religious revival swept colonies in mid 1700s. Promoted Protestantism over other religions. Others frowned upon this support of Protestantism over other religions. At one time, taxes were collected and sent to the citizen’s religious school of choice. In early times, the US had multiple establishments of religion.
Revolutionary Times It took seven years for Jefferson’s Bill for Religious Freedom to be passed in Virginia. By 1791, nine of 13 colonies had declared religious freedom and separation of church and state. Four of 13 had freedom, but taxed churches.
Revolutionary Times Laws in remaining four (MD, CN, NH, and MA) finally caught up in support of 1 st Amendment. Protestant beliefs of morality, frugality, self- denial, and benevolence were becoming infused in teachings, nonetheless. This was done, in part, in reaction to the thoughts of profiteering, pride, arrogance, and infidelity associated with the haughty British.
Concept of Liberty Original Constitutional framers did not define liberty as we do today. For them, it meant being free from nobility, privileged monarchy or external control. Liberty, to the revolutionaries, did not mean freedom as we use it. Our definition came about some 75 years later in the mid-1800s. For colonials, the idea of public liberty over-rode the concept of private liberty.
Concept of Equality An elusive concept. It meant political equality. Did not mean social or economic equality. Equality could be earned through hard work; it was not given to them. “The creed of equality did not give men equality, but invited them to claim it, invited them not to know their place and keep it, but to seek and demand a better place. Yet, the conflicts resulting from such demands have generally, though not always, stopped short of large-scale violence and have generally eventuated in a greater degree of actual equality.”—Edmund Morgan
Concept of the Public Good Based on developing public virtue. It was the idea that we were in this together. Pleas for devotion to public good. (JFK spoke of this later in his, “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask… Commonwealth meant sacrifice for common good. Virginia and MA were noted for their commonwealth status.
Education in States, 1776- PA, 1776, first state constitution that required every county to build schools. Similar in NC (1776), GA (1777), and Vermont (1777) Not clear why VA did not include education in its constitution. Great debate led by Jefferson in VA. He believed education had to be public, had to be elem, sec., and state university. Jefferson wanted all remnants from English aristocracy removed.
Articles of Confederation 1776-1783 Power to the states—federal govt could only deal with foreign relations, war, peace, discipline among states, trade with Indians, money and communication. Distrust of anything centralized. Fear that fed govt. would become like England. Regionalism was strong.
Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation govt. dealt well with western lands. Land Ordinance of 1785: Townships 6 miles square, 36 sections, 640 acres each. 16 th section required for school. Land Ordinance of 1785: Townships 6 miles square, 36 sections, 640 acres each. 16 th section required for school. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Detailed admission of new states when pop 60,000. Equal with others.Detailed admission of new states when pop 60,000. Equal with others. School encouraged, p.17School encouraged, p.17 Two townships for universityTwo townships for university Education left to statesEducation left to states Prohibited slavery in these new statesProhibited slavery in these new states
Articles of Confederation Decade after 1776, the United States was dealing with monumental problems A confederation was not working. More central structure was needed. Central structure meant federalism, which is the opposite of confederalism.
The US Constitution Written in reaction of Articles of Confederation. Debated, written, ratified with almost no mention of education. Education viewed as a state function or for private or religious groups. The clash between federalists and anti-federalists (states rights) kept education from becoming a national debate. Education would have further complicated the debate. Our constitution says anything not mentioned as federal is left to states. Federalists (usually aristocrats) didn’t want the poor educated. Anti-federalists didn’t want education controlled by federalists.
The One Dream for Education— Chapter 2 Fears of immigrants settling together and not learning English. New Americans rejected England through a revolution, but were attracted to, promoted, and catered to anything English. Dominant American Revolutionary mood was to achieve American republicanism (representative democracy) drawn from various English and non-English sources.
One Educational Dream Belief that role of education was to stress common good, common values for all people, including many new immigrants, for a representative govt and democratic society. Education has always been a battle between pluribus (what’s best for all) and unum (the rights of individuals.)
Early Educational Proposals Jefferson’s VA Plan, 1779 (public education with elementary, secondary schools) Bill in VA General Assembly called a “Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge” Its goal was to prevent tyranny Counties were to control education through 3 alderman (board members)
Jefferson’s VA Plan cont. Counties were divided into districts called “hundreds” or “wards” Each ward had one elementary school Aldermen to appoint superintendent Salaries, board, lodging paid by taxes All free children to attend three years, and could go longer if parents paid. Curriculum—reading, writing, arithmetic, history of Greece, Rome, England, US. No mention of Bible.
Jefferson’s VA Plan cont. Grammar Schools (secondary schools)—details that states were to be divided into regions composed of several counties. Each region had one grammar school. Board of Visitors controlled. Grammar schools building maintenance paid through private tuition. Best elementary students selected to go to Grammar school at public expense. Best grammar students to go to William and Mary. Grammar schools focused on Latin, Greek, English, geography, higher math, but no Bible.
Jefferson’s VA Plan cont. Jefferson wanted William and Mary to become more public focused; he believed it had not fulfilled its mission. Jefferson’s Bill failed in the Virginia General Assembly.
Benjamin Rush’s PA Plan He was a patriot, educator, physician and liberal reformer. Educated at Princeton and Univ. of Edinburgh (Scotland). Teacher at Univ. of PA. Signer of Declaration of Independence. 1786 proposed Plan of Public Ed. For PA Modeled after Scottish schools—free/public Looked like Jefferson’s plan. Unlike Jefferson, Rush’s Plan had a German and Bible-oriented curriculum. Believed children of same religion and/or nationality should go to school together.
Rush’s PA Plan Free schools in every township for teaching reading and writing (in English and German) and arithmetic. Academies to be in every county to prepare for college Proposed four state colleges in PA One state university to focus on German education focusing on liberal arts/sciences. A State University at the capital to be focused on law, medicine, divinity, and advanced studies. Plus two more. People to be taxed to support all of these. Believed that schools would tie the state together No national proposal from Rush. Advocated education for women (curriculum focused on the practical, household, child rearing with English, writing, accounting, bookkeeping, geography, history, biographies, travel, and Christianity)
Noah Webster’s Education Proposal Wrote essays on public virtue Read Rousseau and Thomas Paine Teacher Wanted an Americanized English Believed that cultural and literary nationalism went hand in hand. Wrote Speller (1783), Grammar (1784), and Reader (1785) Americanized reading in elementary schools Wrote lots of articles for newspapers on ed.
Webster’s Plan Believed that education should mold patriotism. Lectured on education for last 40 years of his life. Focused on morals, virtue, generosity, truth, and charity. Webster agreed with Rush to downplay the classics.
Coram’s Proposals for Education Robert Coram (Delaware) proposed a plan for American schools—opposite of Webster’s Plan. Major concern for poor; believed that education should equalize. Coram was an anti-federalist, but wanted a national education system run by the states and districts.
George Washington’s Education Proposals Spoke little about elementary and grammar schools. Reluctant to use the word “school” in speeches. Very general—no specifics! Proposed a National Institute to promote the science of government. This national university was to focus on sciences and literature for future leaders.
Movements Toward A National Education System American Philosophical Society. President Thomas Jefferson. Essay on education contest. Two winners: Samuel Harrison Smith, age 25. Proposed a very specific national plan. Educate ages 5-18 Educate ages 5-18 Educate all males, no exceptions Educate all males, no exceptions Parents to be punished in they did not cooperate. Parents to be punished in they did not cooperate. Funded by property taxes Funded by property taxes It was a k-16 plan. It was a k-16 plan. Samuel Harrison Smith knew plan was too expensive.
Second Philosophical Society winner Samuel Knox, Presbyterian minister from Scotland. Modeled his plan after Scotland’s schools Wanted religion separated from public ed. Focused on discipline Wanted complete national education plan Curriculum goals to be liberty, equality, and public good. Elem school from ages 8-12 County academics from 12-15. State colleges (one in each state) focused on liberal arts. One national university curriculum in all fields except theology Was a uniform plan which promoted harmony, unity of taste and manners, patriotism, and federalism.
Educational Reality--Pluribus Jefferson died in 1826. Education was barely accepted in states. No national plan By mid-1800s, public support for education winning widespread support in New England and New York. Was to spread over next 100 years. People realized education’s impact on a new democracy History books written to play up American greatness; exaggerated nationalism.
Summary—Chapter 1 Focused on education in colonial America. Focused on religion and education Focused on American ideals—liberty, equality, and the public good (but those words’ meanings were different from today) Focused on early education efforts in New England Focused on the Articles of Confederation Focused on the Northwest Ordinance
Summary—Chapter 2 The Educational Dream—Unum Early Education Proposals: Jefferson, Rush, N. Webster, Coram, & Washington. Advocates for a National Education System—the American Philosophical Society Samuel Harrison Smith’s proposal Samuel Harrison Smith’s proposal Samuel Knox’s proposal Samuel Knox’s proposal
Leads us to… The Educational Reality--- Pluribus, rather than Unum