Presentation on theme: "1)What are the 3 key concepts of Republicanism? 2)What were the 3 basic issues debated when drafting the Articles of Confederation? 3)What makes the Articles."— Presentation transcript:
1)What are the 3 key concepts of Republicanism? 2)What were the 3 basic issues debated when drafting the Articles of Confederation? 3)What makes the Articles of Confederations weak? With the person sitting next to you, discuss… BELL RINGER Look in your notes if you must…
1)Describe Shay’s Rebellion and what that represented. 2)Summarize the key conflicts at the Constitutional Convention. 3)Outline the form of government that the U.S. Constitution established.
From Weakness to Failure… Why the Articles of Confederation Failed Country lacked any national unity Each state functioned independently 9 of 13 had to agree to pass a new law All states had to agree on an amendment No one to enforce the laws (executive branch) Didn’t recognize differences in populations Problems with foreign nations, states had little concern for the nation as a whole Especially with Spain and England Huge debt from Revolutionary War Congress could not enact or collect taxes Congress could not regulate foreign trade Huge debt from farmers Shay’s Rebellion Shay’s Rebellion (1787) showed a serious problem. With so many farmers willing to rebel, panic spread through the new nation. James Madison & Alexander Hamilton called for a convention to discuss the problems.
Back to the Drawing Board… After Shay’s Rebellion, it is evident that changes must be made. In may of 1787, 12 of the 13 states meet in Philadelphia to figure out the changes that needed to me made to the Articles of Confederation. They soon realized they have to form a new government. Key Issues at the Constitutional Convention Slavery Issues Will slaves count as people? 3/5 th Compromise 3/5 th of a state’s slaves will count for population Big VS Small States The Great Compromise Bi-cameral Legislature #1 based on population #2 has 2 per state New Government Structure FEDERALISM – divided power between the state and federal governments Separation of Powers – 3 Branches, keeps one branch from getting too much power
The Great Compromise Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan
VS Federalists Antifederalists Supported the Constitution Included George Washington & James Madison Heavy support from cities, skilled workers, merchants, and laborers Small states and areas with weak economy supported the idea of a stronger central government Opposed the Constitution Included Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry Supported from rural areas People thought it would add to their taxes Large states and areas with stronger economies had greater freedom under the Articles of Confederation A war of words resulted in public debates. The Federalist Papers appeared in newspapers defending the Constitution. Letters from the Federal Farmer appeared as a counter to the Papers. Most newspapers favored the Federalists.
Antifederalist Against the Constitution Federalist For the Constitution
Ratifying the Constitution Antifederalists had a strong argument against the Constitution. It lacked a “Bill of Rights” which is a formal summary of citizens’ rights. People demanded a Bill of Rights to ease their fear of a strong central government. They wanted written guarantee of freedom of speech, press, religion For many states ratification depended on the presence of a Bill of Rights. The states recommended 80 amendments, then it was narrowed to just 10. First 10 Amendments = Bill of Rights 1-8 concern personal liberties 9 th asserts that rights are not limited to those specifically mentioned 10 th affirms that people and states have power not specifically given to the national government The Constitution is ratified and the new government becomes a reality in 1789, however Rhode Island did not ratify until 1790