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ARE ALL ROCKS MINERALS?. HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYED SOLIDLIQUID:MELTING LIQUID GAS:

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Presentation on theme: "ARE ALL ROCKS MINERALS?. HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYED SOLIDLIQUID:MELTING LIQUID GAS:"— Presentation transcript:

1 ARE ALL ROCKS MINERALS?

2 HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYED SOLIDLIQUID:MELTING LIQUID GAS: EVAPORATION,BOILING GAS LIQUID: CONDENSATION LIQUID SOLID: FREEZING SOLID GAS: SUBLIMATION GAS SOLID: CRYSTALLIZATION

3 WHAT IS A MINERAL? NATURALLY OCCURRING: Formed by natural processes. INORGANIC: Do not come from living organisms. SOLIDS: All minerals are solid DEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS: Each mineral has a unique composition (SiO2). CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE: The atoms are arranged in regular geometric patterns.

4 HOW ARE MINERALS FORMED? MINERALS FROM MAGMA: Minerals can form from cooling magma from volcanoes. MINERALS FROM SOLUTIONS: In nature if a solution of water becomes supersaturated, or overfilled, mineral crystals will begin to precipitate, or drop out of the solution.

5 MAJOR CRYSTAL SYSTEMS CUBICHEXAGONALTETRAGONALORTHORHOMBICMONCLINICTRICLINIC

6 MINERAL GROUPS SILICATES : Silicon + Oxygen + metals Make up 96% of all minerals CARBONATES: CO 3 + metals SULFATES: SO 4 + metals OXIDES: Oxygen + metals HALIDES: Halogens + metal SULFIDES: Sulfur + metals

7 HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MINERALS? COLOR: What color is the mineral? LUSTER: Metallic or nonmetallic TEXTURE: How does it feel? STREAK: Rub a mineral across an unglazed porcelain tile, what color does it leave behind? HARDNESS: One of the most useful tests, measures how easily a mineral can be scratched.

8 CLEAVAGE/FRACTURE: Cleavage is when a mineral splits evenly along one or more planes. Fracture occurs when a mineral breaks roughly, jagged along the edges because of tightly bonded atoms. DENSITY & SPECIFIC GRAVITY: D = Mass/Volume; Specific gravity = ratio of weight of the substance/weight of equal volume of water at 4˚ C.

9 WHAT IS A GEM? A RARE AND BEAUTIFUL MINERAL OR ROCK MINERAL OR ROCK WHAT IS AN ORE? A ROCK THAT CONTAINS MINERALS YOU CAN MINE FOR USE TO MAKE A PROFIT (EXAMPLE: BAUXITE; AN ORE MINED FOR ALUMINUM TO MAKE SODA CANS, POTS, PANS ETC.) CANS, POTS, PANS ETC.)


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