2 HOW DOES MATTER CHANGE? LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER: NO MATTER CAN BE CREATED OR DESTROYEDSOLID―›LIQUID:MELTINGLIQUID ―› GAS: EVAPORATION,BOILINGGAS ―› LIQUID: CONDENSATIONLIQUID ―› SOLID: FREEZINGSOLID ―› GAS: SUBLIMATIONGAS ―› SOLID: CRYSTALLIZATION
3 WHAT IS A MINERAL? NATURALLY OCCURRING: Formed by natural processes. INORGANIC: Do not come from living organisms.SOLIDS: All minerals are solidDEFINITE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS: Each mineral has a unique composition (SiO2).CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE: The atoms are arranged in regular geometric patterns.
4 HOW ARE MINERALS FORMED? MINERALS FROM MAGMA: Minerals can form from cooling magma from volcanoes.MINERALS FROM SOLUTIONS: In nature if a solution of water becomes supersaturated, or overfilled, mineral crystals will begin to precipitate, or drop out of the solution.
5 MAJOR CRYSTAL SYSTEMS CUBIC HEXAGONAL TETRAGONAL ORTHORHOMBIC MONCLINICTRICLINIC
6 MINERAL GROUPSSILICATES: Silicon + Oxygen + metals Make up 96% of all mineralsCARBONATES: CO3 + metalsSULFATES: SO4 + metalsOXIDES: Oxygen + metalsHALIDES: Halogens + metalSULFIDES: Sulfur + metals
7 HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MINERALS? COLOR: What color is the mineral?LUSTER: Metallic or nonmetallicTEXTURE: How does it feel?STREAK: Rub a mineral across an unglazed porcelain tile, what color does it leave behind?HARDNESS: One of the most useful tests, measures how easily a mineral can be scratched.
8 CLEAVAGE/FRACTURE: Cleavage is when a mineral splits evenly along one or more planes. Fracture occurs when a mineral breaks roughly, jagged along the edges because of tightly bonded atoms.DENSITY & SPECIFIC GRAVITY: D = Mass/Volume; Specific gravity = ratio of weight of the substance/weight of equal volume of water at 4˚ C.
9 WHAT IS A GEM?A RARE AND BEAUTIFULMINERAL OR ROCKWHAT IS AN ORE?A ROCK THAT CONTAINS MINERALS YOU CAN MINE FOR USE TO MAKE A PROFIT(EXAMPLE: BAUXITE; AN ORE MINED FOR ALUMINUM TO MAKE SODACANS, POTS, PANS ETC.)
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