Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4.1-2. New Vocabulary Crystalline structure: a structure in which particles are arranged in regular geometric patterns Mineral: a naturally occurring,"— Presentation transcript:
New Vocabulary Crystalline structure: a structure in which particles are arranged in regular geometric patterns Mineral: a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure Crystal: a solid in which the atoms are arranged in repeating patterns Luster: the way that a mineral reflects light from its surface
New Vocabulary Cleavage: how a mineral splits along planes of weakness Fracture: a break with a rough or jagged edge Streak: the color of a mineral when it is broken or powdered Specific gravity: ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4 C Restricted: (write a definition in your own words)
Mineral Characteristics A mineral Is naturally occurring and inorganic _______ ______________________________________ So, ____ is not a mineral. Is a solid with a specific composition ______ _________________. So, ___________ is not a mineral has a definite crystalline structure _________ _________________________________. is not manufactured and has never been alive coal is not a liquid or a gasnatural gas the atoms are all arranged in the same way
Minerals from Magma Magma is ________________ _____________________________ When magma is forced upward __________________________ If the magma reaches Earth’s surface before crystallizing, _______________________________ If the magma crystallizes in Earth’s heated interior ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ molten material beneath the surface of the Earth. it cools and compounds in and the magma begins to interact chemically to form minerals it cools quickly and small crystals form. it cools slowly and large crystals have time to form.
Minerals from Solution 1.A solution can become supersatured, or overfilled, with a solid. Mineral crystals can precipitate, or drop out of the solution. 2. When liquid evaporates from a supersaturated solution, the elements that are left behind can arrange into crystals.
Mineral Identification I.Color A. Caused by __________________________ B. Milky appearance can be due to _____________________. II. ______ A. Caused by ______________________________________. B. Described as _________ or ____________. III. ________ A. Defined as ___________________________________. B. Described as _______, _____, ______, ______, _____, or ______. IV. _______ A. Defined as ___________________________________ ___________________________________________. B. Used only if _________________________________. trace elements or compounds bubbles trapped in crystals Luster differences in chemical composition of minerals metallic nonmetallic Texture how a mineral feels to the touch smooth rough ragged greasy soapy glassy Streak the color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered by rubbing across a porcelain plate the mineral is softer than porcelain
Mineral Identification V. _________ A. Defined as __________________________________. B. Measured according to __________________________. VI. ______________________ A. Determined by _________________________________. 1. A mineral has cleavage if ___________________ ________________________________________ 2. A mineral has fracture if ____________________ _________________ VII. _______________________ A. Density is a ratio of ______________________________ _______________________ B. Density is useful because _________________________ _______________________ C. Specific gravity is a ratio of ________________________ _______________________________________ Hardness how easily a mineral can be scratched Cleavage and fracture Moh’s scale of mineral hardness the arrangement of a mineral’s atoms it splits evenly and easily along one or more flat planes. it breaks with rough or jagged edges Density and specific gravity the mass of the substance divided by its volume. It is not dependent on the size or shape of a mineral the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4 C
Mineral Identification I.Luster A. Caused by differences in chemical composition of minerals. B. Described as metallic or nonmetallic. II. Hardness A. Defined as how easily a mineral can be scratched B. Measured according to Moh’s scale of mineral hardness. III. Cleavage and Fracture A. Determined by the arrangement of a mineral’s atoms. 1. A mineral has cleavage if it spits evenly and easily along one or more flat planes 2. A mineral has fracture if it breaks with rough or jagged edges. IV. Streak A. Defined as the color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered by rubbing across a porcelain plate. B. Used only if the mineral is softer than porcelain.
Mineral Identification V. Color A. Caused by trace elements or compounds. B. Milky appearance can be due to bubbles trapped in crystals. VI. Texture A. Defined as how a mineral feels to the touch. B. Described as smooth, rough, ragged, greasy, soapy, or glassy. VII. Density and Specific Gravity A. Density is a ratio of the mass of the substance divided by its volume B. Density is useful because it is not dependent on the size or shape of the mineral. C. Specific gravity is ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water at 4 o C.
Synthesize (You need to answer the question on page 40) Section 4.2 Element (you define the term) New Vocabulary silicates: ________________________________________ _______________________________________________ tetrahedron: ____________________________________ ore: ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________ gem: __________________________________________ Minerals that contain silicon and oxygen, and usually one additional element A three-dimensional shape that resembles a pyramid A mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit A valuable mineral prized for its rarity and beauty