# Energy as wave and particle

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Energy as wave and particle
The Quantum Model Energy as wave and particle

Quantum Mechanics Explains how ‘small’ particles move Sorry Mr. Smith

What is light? Wave Particle

Photoelectric Effect

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

c =  If energy is constant then: OR
 (wavelength), in meters, is inversely proportional to  (frequency), measured in hertz or 1/s OR As wavelength increases frequency decreases

E = h If energy is constant then: h is Planck’s constant, (J x s)
 (frequency), measured in hertz or 1/s E is energy in Joules (J)

Wave Comparison Red Light Low frequency Long wavelength Violet Light
nm = 1 x 10-9 m Red Light Low frequency Long wavelength Violet Light High frequency Short wavelength

Example Problem Refer to #1 on your Worksheet. On page 7 of hw packet.

Bohr Model Electrons are a HUGE deal in chemistry
Responsible for chem rxns Today: How many are there Where do they reside

Periodic Table

Electron Configurations
Electron configurations are...

Electron Configuration Vocab
Principle Energy Level correlates to the period (1-7), periods go from left to right across the periodic table Sublevel are located in the principle energy level. There are 4 that we will talk about s, p, d and f. Orbital located in the sublevel. Where electrons are most likely to be found 1 ORBITAL HOLDS 2 ELECTRONS

Writing Electron Configurations
Principle Energy Level[sublevel]number of electrons OR a[b]c Get your periodic table! Start from left to right!

Orbital Diagrams Tool for creating electron configurations
2 dimensional representation of where electrons are in an atom

Aufbau Principle electrons are added to the lowest available energy level. Hydrogen as an example:

Pauli Exclusion Principle
each orbital can hold two electrons those electrons must have opposite spins spin is represented by the arrow facing up or down.

Hund’s Rule Orbitals of equal energy are occupied by one electron before 2 electrons occupy 1 orbital. The second electron is added after all orbitals have one electron

Aufbau Diagram

The Periodic Table 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 5d 6p 7s 6d 7p
4f 5f

Noble Gas Configuration – Short cut
Locate the element on the PT Trace backward to the nearest noble gas Put that noble gas in [] (brackets) Fill in remaining electrons

P orbitals in more detail
p sublevel 3 orbitals x, y & z Work like a coordinate plane Atoms are 3-D

Valence Electrons Electrons in the HIGHEST energy level (n)
Electrons that interact during chem rxns Always in the s & p sublevels

Finding Valence Electrons
Locate the highest energy level Count the electrons present Orbital diagrams SUPER helpful Example: Sulfur How many valence e’s?

Stability – Hund’s Rule
Exceptions to e configs In the d-block (yo) Almost ½ filled d-block Almost full d-block It is more stable for atoms to have 2 half filled sublevels Compared to 1 full and 1 partially filled Example: Chromium

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