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The Quantum Model Energy as wave and particle

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Bohr Model Electrons are a HUGE deal in chemistry Responsible for chem rxns Today: How many are there Where do they reside

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Periodic Table

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Electron Configurations Electron configurations are...

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Electron Configuration Vocab Principle Energy Level correlates to the period (1-7), periods go from left to right across the periodic table Sublevel are located in the principle energy level. There are 4 that we will talk about s, p, d and f. Orbital located in the sublevel. Where electrons are most likely to be found 1 ORBITAL HOLDS 2 ELECTRONS

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Writing Electron Configurations Principle Energy Level[sublevel]number of electrons OR a[b] c Get your periodic table! Start from left to right!

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Orbital Diagrams Tool for creating electron configurations 2 dimensional representation of where electrons are in an atom

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Aufbau Principle electrons are added to the lowest available energy level. Hydrogen as an example:

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Pauli Exclusion Principle each orbital can hold two electrons those electrons must have opposite spins spin is represented by the arrow facing up or down.

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Hunds Rule Orbitals of equal energy are occupied by one electron before 2 electrons occupy 1 orbital. The second electron is added after all orbitals have one electron

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Aufbau Diagram

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Noble Gas Configuration – Short cut Locate the element on the PT Trace backward to the nearest noble gas Put that noble gas in [] (brackets) Fill in remaining electrons

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Principle Quantum Numbers Quantum numbers define the characteristics of a particular electron. Work as an address for the electron electrons repel each other, no two electrons can have the same address. Pauli Exclusion principle

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Quantum Numbers – electron Address State City Street Number of your home n - principle energy level 1, 2, 3, 4... l – sublevel shape of the region of space (s, p, d, f) m - orbital orientation axes of the magnetic moment. s – spin Can be +1/2 or –1/2 for electrons

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Valence Electrons Electrons in the HIGHEST energy level (n) Electrons that interact during chem rxns Always in the s & p sublevels

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Finding Valence Electrons Locate the highest energy level Count the electrons present Orbital diagrams SUPER helpful Example: Sulfur How many valence es?

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Shapes of s orbitals s orbital

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s orbitals

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Shapes p orbitals Nodal plane

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P orbitals in more detail p sublevel 3 orbitals x, y & z Work like a coordinate plane Atoms are 3-D

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Shapes of d orbitals

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle An electrons location and speed cannot be determined at the same time. If we cause change to find one variable, we are no longer looking at the actual e- situation. If we need to slow or stop it to locate it or if we need to locate it to find its speed, then we allow the chance of change. So quantum mechanics can tell us the probability that an electron is somewhere, but it does not tell us how it got there.

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Nodal Surfaces A nodal surface is a region that defines the border of an orbital. This is where the probability function equals zero. Electrons CAN NOT exist in this area. Nodal surfaces are spherical for the s orbitals. 3s orbital Nodal surfaces are NOT spherical for other orbitals. 2p orbital

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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What is light? Wave Particle

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Red Light Violet Light Low frequency Long wavelength High frequency Short wavelength Wave Comparison nm = 1 x 10 -9 m

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Waves & Wavelength How many wavelengths are represented in each figure below?

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C= It stands to reason that if energy is constant then (wavelength) is inversely proportional to (frequency). OR As wavelength increases frequency decreases

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Max Planck Max Planck mathematically determined h that could be multiplied by to solve for energy (E) every time an electron gave off light as it fell. (This simply means that all wavelengths are proportional) E = h Thus E will tell us the relative distance apart of each energy level in a given atom based upon the spectral lines.

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C= Remember that Einstein told us that matter and energy are the same thing. Matter is simply frozen energy. From Einstein we were able to come up with several more equations to understand quantum mechanics. C= = wavelength Ex: yellow orange = 580 nanometers So as in the lab, using a spectroscope we can determine the wavelength of the color of light ( ). We can solve for frequency ( ) mathematically.

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De Broglie De Broglie argued that as particles (i.e.electrons) drop back to lower energies, photons of energy are given off in packets or specific amounts called quanta. His doctoral board scoffed and was ready to deny his degree but changed their minds when Einstein supported him fully. His model changed the Bohr model so that all elements could be explained according to their frequencies of energy. Remember that energy is constant and that standing waves are quantized as well (they only increase by multiples of ½)

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De Broglie Essentially the model went from Bohr to de Broglie

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Spectra With the de Broglie Model, it became possible to explain the spectral lines of all models. Each wavelength would allow electrons to fall back to lower energy levels emitting various energies which translate to frequencies thus defining a wavelength

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Hydrogen Emission Spectrum

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Some Atomic Emission Spectra Hydrogen Mercury Argon Helium

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de Broglie and Wave Model An electron in its path is associated with a wavelength. The wavelength depends on the mass:

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Example Problem What is the characteristic wavelength of an electron with a velocity of 5.97 x 10 6 m/s? (Use 9.11 x 10 -31 kg for the mass of an e - )

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Bright-line Spectra Atoms are quantized, existing only in definite energy states so an atom absorbs a specific quanta of energy pushing electrons to higher energy levels. An EXCITED electron jumps from its ground state to a higher energy level. The energy cannot be maintained so it falls back to where it came from losing exactly the same amount of energy that it absorbed.

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Energy of Electrons We can calculate the energy the electrons of a hydrogen atom emit when they fall by using the Balmer equation So if an electron falls from the 6th energy level to the 2nd energy level then – Note: energy levels are not actually distances between electrons and the nucleus. n = 3,4,5... k = constant = 2.179x10 -18

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Excited atoms

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Schrodinger applied idea of e- behaving as a wave to the problem of electrons in atoms. He developed the WAVE EQUATION Solution gives set of math expressions called WAVE FUNCTIONS, Solution gives set of math expressions called WAVE FUNCTIONS, Each describes an allowed energy state of an e- E. Schrodinger 1887-1961 Quantum or Wave Mechanics

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Waves: standing, travelling Q1 - A standing wave is the combination of two waves (travelling in opposite directions). It has nodes, where a portion of the wave remains stationary (spring demonstration) Notice that a standing wave (which is what an electron is) can only have certain wavelengths (0.5, 1, etc.) because the ends are fixed as nodes W = 0.5 W = 1 W = 1.5 W = 2

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