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Electron Configuration Filling-Order of Electrons in an Atom

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved Energy 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 4p4p 3d3d 4d4d 5s5s 5p5p 6s6s 7s7s 6p6p 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 5d5d

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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

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Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hunds Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. *Aufbau is German for building up

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General Rules Aufbau Principle –Electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first. –Lazy Tenant Rule Courtesy Christy Johannesson 1s1s Energy 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 4p4p 3d3d 4d4d 5s5s 5p5p 6s6s 7s7s 6p6p 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 5d5d

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General Rules Pauli Exclusion PrinciplePauli Exclusion Principle –Each orbital can hold TWO electrons with opposite spins. Courtesy Christy Johannesson Wolfgang Pauli

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RIGHT WRONG General Rules Hunds RuleHunds Rule –Within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them. –Empty Bus Seat Rule Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2

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Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 NOT CORRECT Violates Hunds Rule Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2

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Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel Maximum Number SublevelNumber of Orbitals of Electrons s 1 2 p 3 6 d 5 10 f 7 14 LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 146

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Order in which subshells are filled with electrons 1s2s3s4s5s6s7s1s2s3s4s5s6s7s 2p3p4p5p6p 2p3p4p5p6p 3d4d5d6d 3d4d5d6d 4f5f 4f5f 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d …

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4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 1s1s 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 4p4p 3d3d 4d4d 5s5s 5p5p 6s6s 7s7s 6p6p 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 5d5d Energy

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4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels s s s s p p p d df 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 …

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O 8e - Orbital Diagram Electron Configuration 1s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Notation 1s 2s 2p Courtesy Christy Johannesson O

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Shorthand Configuration S 16e - Valence Electrons Core Electrons S16e - [Ne] 3s 2 3p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 Notation Longhand Configuration Courtesy Christy Johannesson S

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neon's electron configuration (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) Shorthand Configuration (a.k.a Noble Gas Notation) [Ne] 3s 1 third energy level one electron in the s orbital orbital shape Na = [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ] 3s 1 electron configuration A B C D

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Shorthand Configuration (a.k.a Noble Gas notation) [Ar] 4s 2 Electron configurationElement symbol [Ar] 4s 2 3d 3 [Rn] 7s 2 5f 14 6d 4 [He] 2s 2 2p 5 [Kr] 5s 2 4d 9 [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 [He] 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 Ca V Sg F Ag I Xe Fe [Ar] 4s 2 3d 6

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s p d (n-1) f (n-2) 6767 Periodic Patterns 1s1s1s1s 2s2s2s2s 3s3s3s3s 4s4s4s4s 5s5s5s5s 6s6s6s6s 7s7s7s7s 3d3d3d3d 4d4d4d4d 5d5d5d5d 6d6d6d6d 1s1s1s1s 2p2p2p2p 3p3p3p3p 4p4p4p4p 5p5p5p5p 6p6p6p6p 7p7p7p7p 4f4f4f4f 5f5f5f5f

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Period # –energy level (subtract for d & f) A/B Group # –total # of valence e - Column within sublevel block –# of e - in sublevel Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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s-block1st Period 1s 1 1 st column of s-block Periodic Patterns Example - Hydrogen Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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Periodic Patterns Shorthand Configuration –Core electrons: Go up one row and over to the Noble Gas. –Valence electrons: On the next row, fill in the # of e - in each sublevel. Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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[Ar]4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 Periodic Patterns GermaniumExample - Germanium Courtesy Christy Johannesson Ge

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Full energy level Full sublevel (s, p, d, f) Half-full sublevel Stability Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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Electron Configuration Exceptions –Copper EXPECT :[Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 ACTUALLY :[Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 –Copper gains stability with a full d-sublevel. Stability Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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Electron Configuration Exceptions –Chromium EXPECT :[Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 ACTUALLY :[Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 –Chromium gains stability with a half-full d-sublevel. Stability Courtesy Christy Johannesson

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Write out the complete electron configuration for the following: 1) An atom of nitrogen 2) An atom of silver 3) An atom of uranium (shorthand) Fill in the orbital boxes for an atom of nickel (Ni) 2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s Which rule states no two electrons can spin the same direction in a single orbital? Extra credit: Draw a Bohr model of a Ti 4+ cation. Ti 4+ is isoelectronic to Argon. POP QUIZ

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Write out the complete electron configuration for the following: 1) An atom of nitrogen 2) An atom of silver 3) An atom of uranium (shorthand) Fill in the orbital boxes for an atom of nickel (Ni) 2s2s2p2p 3s3s 3p3p4s4s3d3d1s1s Which rule states no two electrons can spin the same direction in a single orbital? 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9 [Rn]7s 2 5f 4 Pauli exclusion principle Answer Key

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