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NEXT Unemployed men in a Chicago soup kitchen during the Great Depression (1930). Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 Societies undergo political, economic, and.

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Presentation on theme: "NEXT Unemployed men in a Chicago soup kitchen during the Great Depression (1930). Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 Societies undergo political, economic, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 NEXT Unemployed men in a Chicago soup kitchen during the Great Depression (1930). Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 Societies undergo political, economic, and social changes that lead to renewed aggression.

2 NEXT Years of Crisis, 1919–1939 Map SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Postwar Uncertainty A Worldwide Depression Fascism Rises in Europe Aggressors Invade Nations Chart

3 NEXT Section 1 Postwar Uncertainty The postwar period is one of loss and uncertainty but also one of invention, creativity, and new ideas.

4 NEXT A New Revolution in Science Postwar Uncertainty Impact of Einsteins Theory of Relativity Albert Einstein offered radically new ideas in field of physics Theory of relativityidea that space and time are not constant New ideas make world seem more uncertain than before SECTION 1 Influence of Freudian Psychology Sigmund FreudAustrian doctor with new ideas about the mind Claims that human behavior is not based on reason Image

5 NEXT Literature in the 1920s SECTION 1 Impact of the War Suffering caused by World War I leads many to doubt old beliefs Thinkers React to Uncertainties Philosophy of existentialismno universal meaning to life Friedrich Nietzsche urges return to ancient heroic values Writers Reflect Societys Concerns Novels of Kafka reflect uneasiness of postwar years Novels of Joyce reflect Freuds ideas about the mind

6 NEXT Revolution in the Arts SECTION 1 Artists Rebel Against Tradition Artists want to depict inner world of mind Cubism transforms natural shapes into geometric forms Surrealismart movement that links dreams with real life Composers Try New Styles Composers move away from traditional styles Jazzmusical style that captures ages new freedom Image

7 NEXT Society Challenges Convention SECTION 1 Womens Roles Change Women take on new roles during World War I This work helps many win the right to vote In 1920s, women adopt freer clothing, hairstyles Some women seek new careers

8 NEXT Technological Advances Improve Life SECTION 1 The Automobile Alters Society Cars improve after the war Cars become less expensive Increased auto use changes peoples lives Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment In 1920s, commercial radio stations spread across U.S. Motion pictures become major industry, art form Airplanes Transform Travel Charles Lindbergh is first to fly alone across Atlantic Image

9 NEXT An economic depression in the United States spreads throughout the world and lasts for a decade. Section 2 A Worldwide Depression

10 NEXT Postwar Europe A Worldwide Depression Unstable New Democracies Fall of kingdoms, empires creates new democracies in Europe People have little experience with representative government Some form coalition governmentstemporary, multi-party alliances Frequent changes in government create instability SECTION 2

11 NEXT Democracy in Germany Weimar RepublicGermanys democratic government formed in 1919 Government has serious weaknesses The Weimar Republic Inflation Causes Crisis in Germany Value of German currency falls dramatically Attempts at Economic Stability American loans help revive German economy Efforts at a Lasting Peace Germany and France sign treaty pledging no more war Many nations sign a similar agreement, the Kellogg-Briand pact Image SECTION 2

12 NEXT Financial Collapse A Flawed U.S. Economy Weaknesses in American economy cause serious problems Wealth is distributed unevenly Most people are too poor to buy goods produced Factory owners cut back on production, lay off workers Farmers produce more food than people can eat Many farmers cannot repay loans and lose their land SECTION 2 Continued...

13 NEXT continued Financial Collapse The Stock Market Crashes Stock prices soar Many people buy stocks on credit Investors begin selling stocks, which lowers prices On October 29, 1929, stock market collapses as prices fall very low SECTION 2 Chart

14 NEXT Economic Downturn Great Depressionlong business slump of 1930s Marked by bank failures, loss of savings, unemployment The Great Depression A Global Depression American economic problems create problems in other countries World trade falls sharply Effects Throughout the World Germany and Austria suffer greatly, as do Asia and Latin America Chart SECTION 2

15 NEXT The World Confronts the Crisis Britain Takes Steps to Improve Its Economy British voters elect coalition government, avoids political extremes Government brings about slow, steady economic recovery Preserves democracy by avoiding political extremes SECTION 2 Continued...

16 NEXT continued The World Confronts the Crisis France Responds to Economic Crisis France has more self-sufficient economy Preserves democracy in spite of economic troubles SECTION 2 Image Socialist Governments Find Solutions Public works programs help Scandinavian countries recover Recovery in the United States Franklin D. RooseveltAmerican president during Depression New DealRoosevelts program of government reform to improve economy

17 Section 3 Fascism Rises in Europe In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy and Germany turn to totalitarian dictators. NEXT

18 Fascisms Rise in Italy New Political Movement Fascism is new, militant political movement Emphasizes nationalism and loyalty to authoritarian leader SECTION 3 Fascism Rises in Europe Il Duces Leadership Mussolini takes firm control of politics and economy in Italy Mussolini Takes Control Italians want a leader who will take action Fascist Party leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue Italy Italian king puts Mussolini in charge of government

19 NEXT Hitler Rises to Power in Germany A New Power Adolf Hitlerobscure political figure in 1920s Germany The Rise of the Nazis NazismGerman brand of fascism Hitler becomes Nazi leader, plots to seize national power Mein KampfHitlers book detailing beliefs, goals Hitler believes that Germany needs lebensraum, or living space Germans turn to Hitler when economy collapses SECTION 3

20 NEXT Hitler Becomes Chancellor Hitlers New Power Hitler is named chancellor Turns Germany into totalitarian state Uses brutal tactics to eliminate enemies Nazis take command of economy Hitler Makes War on the Jews Nazis deprive Jews of rights, promote violence against them SECTION 3 Image The Führer Is Supreme Hitler takes control over every aspect of German life Image

21 NEXT Other Countries Fall to Dictators World Is Divided Most of eastern Europe falls to dictators Only Czechoslovakia retains democratic government World splits into two campsdemocratic and totalitarian SECTION 3

22 NEXT Section 4 Aggressors Invade Nations As Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries, the rest of the world does nothing to stop them.

23 NEXT Militarists Take Control of Japan Military leaders take control of country Want to solve economic problems through foreign expansion Japan Seeks an Empire SECTION 4 Aggressors Invade Nations Japan Invades China In 1937, Japan launches war on China Japan Invades Manchuria Japan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese province In 1931, Japanese army seizes Manchuria League of Nations protests action; Japan withdraws from League Map

24 NEXT Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia In 1935, Mussolini attacks Ethiopia League of Nations does not stop aggression European Aggressors on the March SECTION 4 Continued... Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty In 1935, Hitler begins rebuilding German army In 1936, Germany occupies Rhineland Britain urges appeasement, a policy of giving in to aggression Germany, Italy, and Japanthe Axis Powers form an alliance

25 NEXT Civil War Erupts in Spain In 1931, a republic is declared in Spain In 1936, General Francisco Franco leads rebellion Hitler and Mussolini help Franco and his Fascists In 1939, Franco wins Spanish Civil War Franco becomes Spains Fascist dictator SECTION 4 continued European Aggressors on the March

26 NEXT United States Follows an Isolationist Policy Isolationismavoidance of political ties with other countries In 1935, Congress passes Neutrality Acts Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace SECTION 4 Continued... The German Reich Expands Hitler plans to expand Third ReichGerman Empire In 1938, Hitler annexes Austria Hitler demands the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia Czechs refuse, ask France for help Image

27 NEXT Britain and France Again Choose Appeasement Leaders meet at Munich Conference to settle Czech crisis Britain and France agree to let Hitler take Sudetenland But in 1939, Hitler still takes rest of Czechoslovakia Mussolini takes Albania; Hitler demands part of Poland SECTION 4 continued Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact In 1939, Stalin and Hitler pledge never to attack one another Image

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