1 Postwar Uncertainty Chapter 15, Section 1 Societies undergo political, economic, and social changes that lead to renewed aggression…
2 I CANExplain how the end of WWI led to deep & permanent changes in the human spirit.
3 A New Revolution in Science Impact of Einstein’s Theory of RelativityAlbert Einstein—offered radically new ideas in the field of physicsTheory of Relativity—idea that space & time are not constantNew ideas make world seem more uncertain than beforeInfluence of Freudian PsychologySigmund Freud—Austrian doctor with new ideas about the mindClaims that human behavior is not based on reason
4 Literature in the 1920s: THE LOST GENERATION Impact of the WarSuffering caused by WWI leads many to doubt old beliefsWriters reflect society’s concernsThinkers React to Uncertain TimesPhilosophy of existentialism—no universal meaning of lifeFriedrich Nietzsche urges return to ancient heroic values
5 Revolution in the Arts Artists Rebel Against Tradition Artists want to depict inner world of mindCubism transforms natural shapes into geometric formsSurrealism—art movement that links dreams with real lifeComposers Try New StylesComposers move away from traditional stylesJazz—musical style that captures age’s new freedomGeorges Braque, Woman with a Guitar, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France. An early example of Synthetic Cubism.
6 Left: Jelly Roll Morton, top right: Louis Armstrong, bottom right: Billie Holiday
7 Society Challenges Convention Women’s Roles ChangeWomen take on new roles during WWIThis work helps many win the right to voteIn the 1920s, women adopt freer clothing, hairstyles, careers
8 Technological Advances Improve Life Automobile Alters SocietyCars improve after the war; become less expensiveLifestyles changeAirplanes Transform TravelCharles Lindbergh is first to fly alone across the Atlantic Ocean
9 Technological Advances Improve Life Radio & Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment (1920s)Commercial radio stations spread across the USAMotion pictures become major industry, art form
10 Summarize3-5 sentences hitting the highlights of the changes in life after WWI.
11 A Worldwide Depression Ch. 15, Section 2 An economic depression in the USA spreads throughout the world and lasts for a decade
12 I CAN…Understand and describe the causes & responses to the Great Depression.
13 Postwar Europe (DO NOT COPY) Unstable New DemocraciesFall of kingdoms, empires creates new democracies in EuropePeople have little experience with representative democracySome form coalition governments-temporary, multi-party alliancesFrequent changes in government create instability
14 The Weimar Republic Democracy in Germany Weimar Republic—Germany’s democratic government formed in 1919Government had serious weaknesses: high inflation, too many political parties that would not work together and inexperience in democracyAttempts at Economic StabilityAmerican loans help revive German economy
15 The Weimar Republic Efforts at a Lasting Peace Germany and France sign treaty pledging no more warMany nations sign a similar agreement, the Kellogg-Briand pactKellogg-Briand Pact of 1928—no aggression promise between US, France, UK, Japan, Germany & Italy
16 Financial Collapse A Flawed U.S. Economy Weaknesses in American economy cause serious problemsWealth is distributed unevenlyMost people are too poor to buy goods producedFactory owners cut back on production, lay off workersFarmers produce more food than people can eatMany farmers cannot repay loans & lose their land
17 The Great Depression Economic Downturn A Global Depression Great Depression—long businessslump of 1930sMarked by bank failures, loss of savings, unemploymentA Global DepressionUSA’s economic problems create problems in other countriesWorld trade falls sharply
18 The World Confronts the Crisis Britain Takes Steps to Improve its EconomyBritish voters elect coalition government, avoids political extremesGovernment brings about slow, steady economic recoveryPreserves democracy by avoiding political extremes
19 The World Confronts the Crisis Socialist Government Find SolutionsPublic works programs help Scandinavian countries recoverRecovery in the USAFranklin D. Roosevelt—American president during the Great DepressionNew Deal—Roosevelt’s program of government reform to improve economy
20 Not Everyone Keeps Democracy Some nations turn to political extremes to solve problems (ie Italy, Spain & Germany)
21 Fascism Rises in Europe 15.3In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy & Germany turn to totalitarian dictatorsFascism Rises in Europe
22 Fascism Rises in Europe In response to political turmoil & economic crises, Italy & Germany turn to totalitarian dictators
23 Fascism’s Rise in Italy New Political MovementFascism is new, militant political movementEmphasizes nationalism & loyalty to authoritarian leaderMussolini Takes ControlItalians want a leader who will take actionFascist Party leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue ItalyItalian king puts Mussolini in charge of governmentIl Duce’s LeadershipMussolini takes firm control of politics & economy in Italy
24 Hitler Rises to Power in Germany A New PowerAdolf Hitler—obscure political figure in the 1920s GermanyThe Rise of the NazisNazism—German brand of FascismHitler becomes Nazi leader, plots to seize national powerMein Kampf—Hitler’s book detailing beliefs, goalsHitler believes that Germany needs lebensraum (living space)Germans turn to Hitler when economy collapses
25 Hitler Becomes Chancellor Hitler’s New PowerHitler is named ChancellorTurns Germany into a totalitarian stateUses brutal tactics to eliminate enemiesNazis take command of economyThe Fuhrer is SupremeHitler takes control over every aspect of German lifeHitler Makes War on the JewsNazis deprive Jews of rights, promote violence against them
26 Other Countries Fall to Dictators World is DividedMost eastern Europe falls to dictatorsOnly Czechoslovakia retains democratic governmentWorld splits into 2 camps: democratic & totalitarian
27 Topic: Years of Crisis: Aggressors Invade Nations 15. 4As Germany, Italy & Japan conquer other countries, the rest of the world does nothing to stop them
28 Aggressors Invade Nations As Germany, Italy & Japan conquer other countries, the rest of the world does nothing to stop them
29 Japan Seeks an Empire Militarists Take Control of Japan Military leaders take control of countryWant to solve economic problems through foreign expansionJapan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese province1931, Japanese army seizes ManchuriaL of N protests actions; Japan withdrawals from League
30 Japan Seeks an Empire1937, Japan launches war on China
31 European Aggressors on the March Mussolini Attacks EthiopiaL of N does not stop aggressionHitler Defies Treaty of Versailles1935, Hitler begins rebuilding army (1st BIG defiance)1936, Germany occupies RhinelandBritain urges appeasement, a policy of giving in to aggressionGermany, Italy & Japan—the Axis Powers—form an alliance
32 European Aggressors on the March Civil War Erupts in Spain1931, a republic is declared in Spain1936, General Francisco Franco leads rebellionHitler & Mussolini help Franco & his fascists1939, Franco wins Spanish Civil WarFranco becomes Spain’s Fascist dictator
33 Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace USA Follows an Isolationist PolicyIsolationism—avoidance of political ties with other countries1935, Congress Passes Neutrality ActThe German Reich ExpandsHitler plans to expand Third Reich—German Empire1938, Hitler annexes AustriaHitler demands the Sudetenland from CzechoslovakiaCzechs refuse, ask France for help
34 Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace Britain & France Again Choose AppeasementLeaders meet at Munich Conference (1938) to settle Czech crisisBritain & France agree to let Hitler take Sudetenland1939, Hitler still takes rest of CzechoslovakiaMussolini takes Albania; Hitler demands part of Poland
35 Let the Games Begin! Nazis & Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact 1939, Stalin & Hitler pledge never to attack one another
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