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Ch.25 Exploration & Colonization of The Americas.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch.25 Exploration & Colonization of The Americas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch.25 Exploration & Colonization of The Americas

2 Theme 2: Development and interaction of culture Element #2: Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies Theme 4: Creation, expansion, & interaction of econ. systems Element #2: Trade and commerce What AP Themes are the focus of Ch.25? Theme 3: State-building, expansion, and conflict Element #3: Nations and nationalism Element #5: Regional, transregional, & global structures and organization

3 I. The Spanish Caribbean A. The indigenous Tainos or Arawaks Taino Indians, Dominican Rep., 1500 CE B. The Encomienda system 1. subjugated by the Spanish to mine gold & silver 2. Brutality & smallpox led to a decrease in the population 3. By early 17th century, the Taino pop. no longer exists. 1. System provided land grants given to Spanish settlers. 2. Tainos forced into labor in exchange for provisions. Thinking Critically: Based on the journal entry, what conclusion can be drawn about European racial ideologies and attitudes toward indigenous peoples in the Americas?

4 II. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru A. The Aztecs (Mexico) and Incas (Peru) 1. The empires of Meso & South America were wealthier and more complex than Caribbean societies. B. Hernan Cortes 1. Conquers Aztecs Internal strife and disease allow Spanish to defeat these groups. 3. Technology (steel swords, muskets, cannons and horses) gave Spanish the advantage. C. Francisco Pizarro 1. Conquers Incas

5 II. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (continued) Europeans Technological advancements enslavement & subjugation

6 II. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (continued) Egyptians Technological advancements enslavement & subjugation

7 III. Iberian Empires in the Americas B. The Spanish formalize their rule 1. New Spain & New Castile - each governed by viceroys 2. audiencias are set up to check the power of the viceroys 3. urban centers develop as a result of Spanish rule C. Portuguese establish imperial presence in Brazil. A. Treaty of Tordesillas 1. Divides South America between Spanish and Portuguese rule.

8 III. Iberian Empires in the Americas (continued) Audencias allowed the Spanish to maintain a power base in the Americas. How did each of the following individuals/groups accomplish this? ClassicalPostclassicalThe Early Modern Period The Mauryan Empire under Ashoka The Holy Roman Empire under Charlemagne The Spanish The Roman Empire The Byzantines The Achaemenids of Persia

9 1. The production of what cash crop dramatically increased the Portuguese interest in Brazil after 1550? 2. What common purpose do the encomienda and mita systems share? 3. What is the connection between the reconquista and the encomienda system?

10 IV. Colonization of North America A. France & England 1. Colonization on east coast, exploration of west coast 2. Migration patterns show more family based settlement. 3. Sought fur, fish, trade routes early 17 th century 4. Suffered from isolation & food shortages Jamestown Colony 1607

11 Spanish & Portuguese Colonization Both Groups French and English Colonization Male-based migration with strictly econ. motives. Both seeking opportunities Family-based migration with resettlement focus. Royal sponsorship with use of viceroys Royal oversight with private investment Mingled with the natives to create a more intricate hierarchy. Maintain separation of cultures. Used indigenous population as a labor source (encomineda, engenho, mita) Both utilized African slave labor Indentured servants Mining of gold and silverBoth cultivated cash crops Profited from the fur trade, tobacco, and fishing Colonization Venn Charts

12 Spanish & Portuguese Colonization Both Groups French and English Colonization Migration dominated by malesMigration more family-based Caribbean, S. & N. AmericaNorth America Used as a source of labor (encomienda, mita, engenho) Reliance on the indigenous pop. and eventually the African slave trade As a means of survival, trade Royal sponsorship and use of viceroys Royal oversight with private investment Imposition of power through force. Resettlement was more of a focus. Missionary efforts were more successful Missionary efforts were less successful Integration of groups was common More segregated (us & them) miningagricultureFur trade, fishing

13 B. Relations with indigenous people 1. Settlers interrupt migrations of indigenous peoples. 2. Lands seized & justified with treaties 3. Natives raided farms & villages – lead to reprisals by settlers , native pop. decreases by 90% Colonial Justice IV. Colonization of North America (continued)

14 1. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the peoples of the Caribbean made their living by doing what? 2. Why did Christian missionaries have greater success at conversion of indigenous peoples of Mexico and Peru, than in the North American colonies?

15 Colonization of North America

16 Colonial Society: S. America Formation of multicultural societies People of varied ancestry lived together under European rule Social hierarchy Iberian colonies: Whites (peninsulares & creoles) Mixed (mestizos & zambos) Africans & natives = bottom mestizo societies emerge Brazil more mixed: mestizos, mulattoes, zambos

17 Colonial Society: No. America Greater gender balance among settlers Allowed marriage within own groups Relations with French traders & native women métis (Euro + native) English frowned on interracial marriages Cultural borrowing: plants, crops, deerskin clothes

18 Spanish Colonial Economy: Mining Silver & gold basis of Spanish wealth Two major sites of silver mining: Zacatecas (Mexico) & Potosi (Peru) Global significance of silver 20% of silver went to royal treasury (the quinto) Funded military & bureaucracy Went to European, then to Asian markets for luxury goods Potosi Silver Mine

19 Spanish Colonial Economy: Agriculture Haciendas basis of Spanish Am. production Produced foodstuffs for local use Encomienda repartimiento Encomienda system seen as abusive Repartimiento replaces conscript & slave with contract labor free laborers by mid-17 th century Native Resistance Rebellion, indolence, retreat Difficult to register complaints

20 Portuguese Colonial Economy Sugar and slavery in Brazil Dependent on sugar production Brazilian life revolved around the sugar mill, or engenho Combined agricultural & industrial enterprises Sugar planters landed nobility Brazilian Sugar Plantation

21 Portuguese Colonial Economy Growth of slavery in Brazil Natives were not cultivators resisted farm labor Disease indigenous pop. Imported African slaves for cane & sugar production after 1530 deaths births demand for slaves 1 ton of sugar = 1 human life Slaves Harvesting Sugarcane

22 North Am. Colonial Economy Fur traders Fur trade extremely profitable Natives trapped for & traded with Europeans Impact of fur trade Environmental conflicts among natives competing for resources Fur Traders

23 North Am. Colonial Economy European settlers threatened natives Cash crops--tobacco, rice, indigo, & cotton Indentured labor in 17 th & 18 th centuries Replaced by Slaves in late 17 th century New England merchants participated in slave trade, distillation of rum Tobacco Plantation

24 Colonial Religion: Christianity Spanish missionaries Est. mission schools & churches Some record native languages & traditions Attracted many proselytes French & English missionaries English not interested in native conversion French moderate success Mission Ventura

25 The Pacific: Australia British captain James Cook explored east Australia in , England est. 1 st settlement in Australia as a penal colony Free settlers outnumbered convicted criminal migrants after 1830s Penal Colony: Australia

26 The Pacific Islands Spanish voyages after Magellan Acapulco to Manila Indigenous Chamorro resisted decimated by smallpox Impact: Occasional skirmishes Whalers regularly visited after 18 th century Missionaries, merchants, and planters follow Chamorro Church Villiage

27 Politics within the Iberian Empires Colonial American society European-style society in cities indigenous culture persisted in rural areas More exploitation than settlement Still, many Iberians settled btw ColonizationSpanish Style

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