Presentation on theme: "Latin America: Colonization and Urbanization 1450-1750."— Presentation transcript:
Latin America: Colonization and Urbanization
Pre-Invasion Describe what life was like for Mesoamerica Describe life in the Andean Highlands
1492 The end of the Reconquista The Moors expelled (and the Jews) Cristobal Colombo
Columbus Voyage, 1492
What was effect back in Europe? New commodities New land New ideas New groups of immigrants
Who went to the New World? In Latin America: –The Spanish and Portuguese commoners: Merchant class Non-nobles, seeking nobility –Conquistadores
And they did what? Tried to establish fiefs Created plantation economy 3 phases: 1.) colonial administration (Indian discrimination/slavery) 2.) Colonial society & economy reached maturity 3.) 1700s reform in American colonies
The Spanish Caribbean Indigenous peoples were the Taino - Lived in small villages under authority of chiefs –Showed little resistance to European visitors Columbus built the fort of Santo Domingo, capital of the Spanish Caribbean –Taino conscripted to mine gold –Encomiendas: land grants to Spanish settlers with total control over local people –Brutal abuses plus smallpox brought decline of Taino populations
Cortes Aztec and Inca societies wealthier, more complex than Caribbean societies (450 men) Brought down the Aztec empire –Advanced weapons: Steel Gunpowder Horses –Alliances with indigenous people Tribal resentment against the Mexica –Diseases (smallpox)
The Road the Ancient Mexicas Travelled
Pizarro Defeated the Inca at the capital, Cuzco Looted gold, silver, other precious metals, jewels from Incan buildings, dead bodies, etc.
How could Pizarro’s tiny force do it? (>600) Many subjects of Incan rule despised the Inca b/c of role as overlord and tax collector Epidemic disease
1570 End of Age of Conquest 192 Spanish cities and towns in the New World Colonial American society –European-style society in cities, indigenous culture persisted in rural areas –More exploitation of New World than settlement –Still, many Iberian migrants settled in the Americas,
Impact on Native Indian Populations Population decline Rise of mestizos Indian Slavery Econmiendas Mita Flee to the cities Plaza de Recocijo de Potosi (1830, oil painting)
Colonial Government Based on coerced labor Hacienda –Similar to what? All reported back to the crown –Viceroys (Mexico and Peru) –Then Audiencias (judicial regions) –Then magistrates (town/village)
Brazil, model plantation colony With two people (groups of 3), create an outline of what people need to know about Brazil. Write this like a 1-pager (picture, thesis, CD, etc.) Share with the class.
Multi-racial Societies Indigenous Americans, Europeans, and Africans brought together in the Americas As conquerors, Europeans “superior” People of mixed-parentage in the middle Slaves at bottom Disparity as to who was more elite: whites from the Americas (creoles) or from Europe (peninsulares) Patriarchal culture
Reforms in the 18 th Century Spain lost its European dominance Other European countries took control of Caribbean Latin America became better able to provide manufactured goods War of Spanish Succession ended with French Bourbon on throne Spain had to open trade to British No more Spanish monopoly!
The Bourbons Increased viceroyalties Exposed corrupt rulers/removed from office Improved military readiness of colonies Colonized California
The Bourbons Created monopolies/improved economy Weakened Latin American position (created dependency) Alienated Creole leadership
So, kill the tyrant! The Creole leadership lead to revolts against the crown New Granada Peru But, social/racial disparity prevented widespread & unified revolt
So, where does that leave us? Widespread social unrest Widespread racial unrest Widespread economic disparity