5 What was effect back in Europe? New commoditiesNew landNew ideasNew groups of immigrants
6 Who went to the New World? In Latin America:The Spanish and Portuguese commoners:Merchant classNon-nobles, seeking nobilityConquistadores
7 And they did what? Tried to establish fiefs Created plantation economy 3 phases:1.) colonial administration (Indian discrimination/slavery)2.) Colonial society & economy reached maturity3.) 1700sreform in American colonies
8 The Spanish Caribbean Indigenous peoples were the Taino - Lived in small villages under authority of chiefsShowed little resistance to European visitorsColumbus built the fort of Santo Domingo, capital of the Spanish CaribbeanTaino conscripted to mine goldEncomiendas: land grants to Spanish settlers with total control over local peopleBrutal abuses plus smallpox brought decline of Taino populations
9 CortesAztec and Inca societies wealthier, more complex than Caribbean societies(450 men)Brought down the Aztec empireAdvanced weapons:SteelGunpowderHorsesAlliances with indigenous peopleTribal resentment against the MexicaDiseases (smallpox)
11 Pizarro 1532-1533 Defeated the Inca at the capital, Cuzco Looted gold, silver, other precious metals, jewels from Incan buildings, dead bodies, etc.
12 How could Pizarro’s tiny force do it? (>600) Many subjects of Incan rule despised the Inca b/c of role as overlord and tax collectorEpidemic disease
13 1570End of Age of Conquest192 Spanish cities and towns in the New WorldColonial American societyEuropean-style society in cities, indigenous culture persisted in rural areasMore exploitation of New World than settlementStill, many Iberian migrants settled in the Americas,
14 Impact on Native Indian Populations Population declineRise of mestizosIndian SlaveryEconmiendasMitaFlee to the citiesPlaza de Recocijo de Potosi (1830, oil painting)
15 Colonial Government Based on coerced labor Hacienda Similar to what?All reported back to the crownViceroys (Mexico and Peru)Then Audiencias (judicial regions)Then magistrates (town/village)
16 Brazil, model plantation colony With two people (groups of 3), create an outline of what people need to know about Brazil. Write this like a 1-pager (picture, thesis, CD, etc.)Share with the class.
17 Multi-racial Societies Indigenous Americans, Europeans, and Africans brought together in the AmericasAs conquerors, Europeans “superior”People of mixed-parentage in the middleSlaves at bottomDisparity as to who was more elite: whites from the Americas (creoles) or from Europe (peninsulares)Patriarchal culture
18 Reforms in the 18th Century Spain lost its European dominanceOther European countries took control of CaribbeanLatin America became better able to provide manufactured goodsWar of Spanish Succession ended with French Bourbon on throneSpain had to open trade to BritishNo more Spanish monopoly!
19 The Bourbons Increased viceroyalties Exposed corrupt rulers/removed from officeImproved military readiness of coloniesColonized California
20 The Bourbons Created monopolies/improved economy Weakened Latin American position (created dependency)Alienated Creole leadership
21 So, kill the tyrant!The Creole leadership lead to revolts against the crownNew GranadaPeruBut, social/racial disparity prevented widespread & unified revolt
22 So, where does that leave us? Widespread social unrestWidespread racial unrestWidespread economic disparity