2Climate charateristics Three common charateristics that define climateTemperaturePrecipitationSeasons (hot/cold, wet/dry)
3Temperature is the degree of heat or cold in the atmosphere Precipitation is the amount of moisture falling at any given moment. It can be in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or ice.
4Climate charateristics cont. Elements that influence regional climate patternslatitude--higher the latitude the colder the climateswindelevation--higher and colderproximity (closeness) to water
5There are 3 latitude climate region Low latitude climates--from 0-30 degrees N and S latitude (tropical)Mid latitude climates--from degrees N and S latitude (mild)High latitude climates—from degrees N and S latitude (polar)
6Elevation is the height an area is above sea level Water influences temperature because it is slow to heat up or cool down. It can also influence precipitation.
7Elements that influence regional climate patterns Wind currents--wind and ocean currents help transfer heat from one part of the earth to another. The process is known as convection. Wind also blows in curved lines because the earth rotates Coriolis Effect
8Climate charateristics cont. World Climate RegionsLow latitudes-tropical wet tropical wet and dry, arid, semiarid, and highlandMiddle Latitudes-semi-arid, arid, Mediterranean, humid continental, marine west coast, humid subtropical, highland
9Climate charateristics cont. World Climate RegionsHigh latitudes-subarctic, tundra, icecap
11Climate charateristics cont. Weather phenomenaMonsoons--South and Southeast Asia (rainstorms)Typhoons--Pacific Ocean—Similar to a hurricaneHurricanes--Atlantic OceanTornadoes--United States
12Climate charateristics cont. Effects of climatecrops--what grows whereclothing--what needs to be wornhousing--type of buildingnatural hazards--dangers
13Physical and ecological processes There are four processes which have shaped the earth, Earthquakes, Floods, Volcanoes, and ErosionThese four processes have created mountains, lakes, islands and have caused tremendous amounts of damage
14Human’s impact on the environment Aral Sea--diverting water has caused the lake to shrink and become uselessColorado River--placing dams on the river has provided hydroelectric power to millions but destroyed the natural landscape
15Human’s impact on the environment Aswan High Dam--has helped control the yearly flooding on the Nile River but has destroyed agricultureCanals—man made waterwayReservoirs—areas of stored waterIrrigation—water used for farming
16How has the land changed due to man Agricultural terracing has cut farms into the sides of hills and mountains in China and Southeast AsiaThe use of Polders has allowed the Netherlands to reclaim millions of acres of farmland from the sea
17Polder– land that has been taken back from the sea by building a dam and pumping the water out Deforestation—removal of all trees from an areaDesertification—the increase of deserts by drought and over-farming or over-grazing
18How has the land changed due to man Deforestation has removed most of the forests in Nepal, Brazil, and Malaysia. This has caused a different set of problems in these areasDesertification has become a major problem in areas of Africa and Asia. Major deserts are growing.
19How has man changed the environment Acid rain caused by pollution from factories and cars has destroyed monuments, cars, and major forests in Germany, Scandinavia, China and Eastern North AmericaPollution destroys wildlife, agriculture and the land and sea. Examples are Mexico City, Chernobyl, and oil spills
20Influence of technology Agriculture--mechanization, fertilizersEnergy usage--fossil fuels, nuclearTransportation--road building, railways
21Influence of technology cont. Airplanes--airport expansion, noiseAutomobiles--parking lots, suburbs
22How does the environment impact on humans Settlement patternshousing materialsagricultural activitytypes of recreationtransportation patterns