2 ClimateClimate:Natural Vegetation: is the plant life that grows in an area if the natural environment has not been changed by people.Five Major Climate Regions: 1) tropical, 2) dry, 3) mid-latitude, 4) high latitude, 5) highland.
3 Tropical ClimatesTropical climate regions are found in or near the low latitudes, the tropics.The two kinds of tropical climate regions are:tropical rain forest and tropical savanna.
4 Tropical Climate Tropical Rain Forest Climate: Hot and wet Found near the Equator.Direct rays of sun keep the temperatures high, average 80°F.Vegetation grows thick in layers formed at different heights.Amazon River basin in South America contains the world’s largest tropical rain forest.
5 Tropical ClimatesTropical Savanna Climate: Areas that have a dry season in winter and a wet season in summer are called tropical savanna climate regions.In the dry season the tough ground is covered with clumps of coarse grass.
6 Dry ClimateDry Climates: Because of vegetation, dry climate regions are also divided into two types, desert and steppe.
7 Dry Climates Little plant life. Little rain Underground springs, however may support an oasis.Oasis: an area of lush vegetation.Cold at night and warm at day.
9 Mid-Latitude Climates The world has four mid-latitude climate regions.Marine West CoastMediterraneanHumid subtropicalHumid continentalMid-Latitude Climates
10 Mid-Latitude Climates Marine West Coast Climate: Cool summers, and mild but wet winters.Deciduous Trees and Mixed forests.Marine west coast climate regions cover much of western Europe and as well as the Pacific coast of North America.Mid-Latitude Climates
11 Mid-Latitude Climates Mediterranean Climate: Have mild rainy winters and hot, sunny summers.These regions are generally found in coastal lands between latitudes 30° and 40° north and south.Dense forests=chaparral.Mid-Latitude Climates
12 Humid Subtropical Climate: Humid subtropical climate regions are generally found at mid-latitudes in the southeastern parts of continents.Here a pattern of win and high pressure related to nearby oceans causes high humidity.Vegetation in humid subtropical climate regions includes both grasslands are forests.Grasslands that lie inland are known as prairie lands.Mid-Latitude Climate
13 Mid-Latitude Climates Humid Continental Climate: The fourth type of mid-latitude climate is the humid continental climate.These regions are more influenced by landmasses than by winds, precipitation, or ocean temperatures.These regions are located only in the Northern Hemisphere.
14 High Latitude Climates High Latitude Climates: There are three types of high latitude climates:SubarcticTundraIce capTemperatures average below freezing for half the year.In some places only a thin layer of surface soil thaws.The frozen subsoil is known as permafrost.High Latitude Climates
15 High Latitude Climates Subarctic Climate: The subarctic severe conditions limit the variety of plant life.Geographers often use taiga, the Russian word for this forest, to refer to subarctic climate regions in general.
16 High Latitude Climates Tundra Climate: Like the subarctic climate region, the tundra climate regions have bitterly cold winters with greatly reduced sunlight.The tundra region’s thin soil above the permafrost supports certain low plants during the short summers.Mosses, bushes, very short grasses, and lichens, plants that grow on rocks, survive on the treeless plain.
17 High Latitude Climates Ice Cap Climate: Because monthly temperatures average below freezing, ice cap climate regions support no vegetation.The land surface is constantly covered by snow and ice, sometimes more than 2 miles.The earth’s greatest polar ice cap spreads over almost all of Antarctica.
18 Highland Climates: In mountain areas the climate varies with elevation Highland Climates: In mountain areas the climate varies with elevation. The higher the altitude, the cooler air becomes.Elevation also influences vegetation.Above the timberline, the elevation above which it is too cold for trees to grow, are scattered tundra plants.Highland Climates
19 People, Climate, and Environment People, Climate, and Environment: Climate affects the kinds of clothing people wear and the kinds of houses they build.Changes that people make in the environment also affect climate.
20 People, Climate, and Environment Adaptations: People adapt to the climate.In cold regions people build well-insulated houses with furnaces or other means of heating.Houses in deserts often have light-colored roofs to reflect the sun’s heat.In wet regions houses may have steep, pointed roofs so that rain or snow run off easily.Climate affects transportation.In some tropical rain forests, plants and trees grow so quickly that building and maintaining roads is very difficult.
21 People, Climate, and Environment Climatic Changes: Climates change gradually over time.During the last 1 to 2 million years, for example, the earth passed through four eras when large areas were covered with glaciers.Geographers have developed several possible explanations for what caused glacial eras:1) One is that variations in the sun’s output of energy and in the earth’s orbit may have caused our world to absorb less solar energy and cool off.2) Another hypothesis, or scientific explanation, suggest that volcanic activity, which put massive amounts of dust in the atmosphere, might have had a cooling effect.
22 People, Climate, and Environment Geographers also believe that human activity causes changes in the world’s climates.Particles in smoke from the burning of fossil fuels may stay in the air for years, scattering the sun’s rays.This reduces the sunlight reaching the ground, lowering the temperature.The exhaust from automobiles helps create smog, a haze caused by the sun’s ultra violet radiation.Smog endangers people’s health.
23 People, Climate, and Environment People also affect climate through water projects, such as dams and river diversions.Dams built for industrial water supplies or for irrigation sometimes cause new areas to become dry.