Presentation on theme: "Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Course for Radiochemistry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Course for Radiochemistry Presented byMinnesota Department of HealthPennsylvania Department of Environmental ProtectionU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyWisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene
2 About this courseThis radiochemistry course was coordinated by Susan Wyatt of the MN Dept of Health Environmental Laboratory Certification program in to fill an existing gap in the USEPA certification officer’s training course.The course was presented in three locations nationwide beginning in Minnesota in September 2006; then Pennsylvania in December 2006; and finally, Arizona in February 2007.
3 The instructors Jeff Brenner, MN Dept of Health Michella Karapondo, USEPAJohn Lorenz, MN Dept of HealthRichard Sheibley, PA Dept of Env ProtectionLynn West, WI State Lab of HygieneSusan Wyatt, MN Dept of Health
4 Course Organization Pre Test: basic knowledge 3 ½ days instruction USEPA requirementsRadiation theory & safetyRadiochemistry instrumentation, & methodsPT samplesData review
5 Course Objectives Gain knowledge sufficient to assess laboratories NELAC complianceUSEPA SDWA complianceNurture awareness of newer radiochemistry technologies and methods
7 Drinking Water Program Update December 2006OGWDW, TSC
8 Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water What do we do?Develop drinking water regulationsSet drinking water standardsProficiency testing criteriaApprove drinking water methodsEvaluate and develop analytical methodsAlternate testing procedures (ATPs)Implement laboratory certification programRadiochemistry auditsNELAC
9 National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC) OGWDW endorsement of NELAC2002 letter from OGWDW supports use of NELAC standardDrinking water accreditation must be as stringent as USEPA’s certificationCertification by method AND analyte vs. technology/analyte or analyte groupDrinking water requires use of defined methodsPerformance based methods are NOT ALLOWED!New methods allow for some laboratory flexibility
10 Proficiency Testing (PT) Program for Drinking Water NIST/NVLAPA2LAAccredits providersEPA -setstandardsUSEPA Criteria DocumentLaboratoriesAnalyze PT SamplesPT ProvidersConducts PT StudiesCO/AA - Reviews PT ResultsNote that EPA terminology is different – Performance Evaluation – PE Study
11 Where can I find PT criteria? Regulatory acceptance limits are in the CFRCalled “Performance Evaluation” in the CFRInorganic criteria: 40 CFR (k)(3)(ii)VOC criteria: 40 CFR (f)(17)(i) and (ii) for vinyl chlorideSOC criteria: 40 CFR (f)(19)(i)(B)Lead/copper criteria: 40 CFR (a)(1)(ii)(A) and (B)DBP criteria: 40 CFR (b)(2) – NOTE that the 2005 CFR does not have the updated DBP criteria!NELAC FoPT Tables
12 Radiochemistry Audits for EPA Region, State and Tribal Laboratories TSC currently supports through extramural moniesState laboratories needing certification are currently audited using a contractorMay not be an option in the near futureWe are working with the regions to find alternate funding
13 Drinking Water Methods Developed by TSC and ORDOther government agenciesUSGSReview methods from voluntary consensus method standard bodiesASTM, Standard Methods, AOACApproved through theregulatory process
14 Evaluating Methods: The Alternate Testing Program 40 CFR allows “alternate analytical techniques”MUST have written permission from EPAA letter from EPA ORPublication in the Federal RegisterATPs are national – there are no lab specific ATPs for drinking waterFor drinking water protocol, call Sample Control Center atQuestions? Contact
15 Alternate Testing Program (ATP) ATP letters will be posted on OGWDW’s web site
16 Where can I find approved methods? Approved methods are listed in CFRInorganic methods: 40 CFROrganic methods: 40 CFRMethods for radioactivity: 40 CFRLead and copper: 40 CFRDisinfection by-products: 40 CFRBUT, the CFR is published only once a year!Keep an eye on the Federal Register!Approved methods are listed on OGWDW’s web siteSome EPA methods are available in PDF formatNational Environmental Monitoring Index (NEMI)
17 National Environmental Monitoring Index (NEMI) Database of methods applicable for monitoring water for chemical and microbiological pollutantsUseful for comparing/contrasting methodsCaution! NEMI may not always contain correct/approved version of methodCan search by analyte, matrix, CAS number, and/or regulatory requirementPublic release October 2002 – announced by joint USGS/USEPA letter
20 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Authorizes EPA to set enforceable health standards for contaminants in drinking wateraffects all public water systems serving at least 25 people or having at least 15 service connectionsrequired that the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations be draftedamended in 1977, 1979, 1980, 1986, and 1996 (reauthorized and amended).
21 How does OGWDW decide what to regulate? 1996 SDWA amendments changed the processContaminant Candidate List (CCL)Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCMR)Regulatory DeterminationRegulatory PromulgationRegulatory ImplementationSix Year Review
23 Federal RegisterPublished daily by the Office of Federal Register (National Archives and Records Administration – NARA)Notices, Proposed & Final RulesPreambleAn explanation of ruleContact personDocket informationHow to submit comments (for proposed rules)RuleThe legal requirementsOnly lists changesAvailable on line at
24 Preamble to Proposed Methods Update Rule FR Citation (69 FR April 6, 2004)
25 Language in Proposed Methods Update Rule FR Citation (69 FR April 6, 2004)* * * Indicates no change in current rule language
26 DocketsProposed rule dockets contain supporting documents & public commentsFinal rule docket also has Agency response to public commentsDocket number is listed in preambleElectronic access to dockets at:
27 Want to know when something is published? Subscribe to EPA’s ListServer to receive an when a FR is published relating to “water”https://lists.epa.gov/read/all_forums/
28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Codification of Federal RulesRule language (no preamble)50 titles - Drinking Water is Title 40Published volumes are updated annuallyTitle 40 is updated on July 1Incorporates all changes from previous yearAvailable on line ate-CFR updated frequently (not official version)
29 Radionuclides in Drinking Water First radionuclide regulations promulgatedAmendments to SDWA1991 – Proposed regulations and revisions1996 – Amendments to SDWA2000 – Final radionuclide rule
30 Analytical Methods for Radionuclides 62 FR 10168 – March 5, 1997 Approved the use of 66 radionuclide methods54 methods proposed in the 1991 radionuclide proposed rule12 methods from public comments to that proposalFull list of approved radionuclide methods in 40 CFR
31 Radon 64 FR 59246 - November 2, 1999 – Proposed Rule Will apply to community water systems using ground water or mixed ground and surface waterMulti-Media Mitigation program plans to address indoor air along with waterRn-222 MCL = 300pCi/L or AMCL = 4,000pCi/Lfirst application of AMCL and MMMFinal rule 2007 or 2008 (or longer!)
32 Radionuclide Rule 65 FR 76708 - December 7, 2000 - Final Rule Retains previously regulated radionuclide contaminants and adds requirements for UraniumApplies to community water systemsInitial monitoring complete by December 31, 2007Sets a new MCL for Uranium – 30 ug/LRetains the existing MCLs for:Radium-226/228 – 5 pCi/LGross alpha particle radioactivity – 15 pCi/LIncludes Ra-226, but excludes radon and uraniumBeta particle and photon activity – 4 mrem/yrSet all Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) for radionuclides at 0 pCi/L
33 Analytical Method for Uranium 69 FR 52176 - August 25, 2004 Approves three ICP-MS methods for UraniumEPA 200.8, revision 5.4SM 3125 (20th edition)ASTM D
34 Method Update Rule 69 FR 18166 – April 6, 2004 – Proposed Rule OGWDW and OSTUpdated versions of ASTM & SM methodsToo many to list hereATP methodsMicro ATP ProtocolEPA 327 – Chlorine dioxideProposed withdrawal of Atrazine immunoassayGeorgia Tech method for the determination of Ra-226 and Ra-228 by Gamma-ray SpectrometryFinal rule – 2006
35 Footnote 14: "The Determination of Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Drinking Water by Gamma-ray Spectrometry Using HPGE or Ge(Li) Detectors," Revision 1.2, December Available from the Environmental Resources Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, 620 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA , USA, Telephone: This method may be used to analyze for radium-226 and radium-228 in samples collected after January 1, 2005 to satisfy the radium-226 and radium-228 monitoring requirements specified at 40 CFR
36 Resources OGWDW Website http://www.epa.gov/safewater Drinking Water RegulationsLaboratory CertificationLab Cert Manual as PDFFederal Register
37 Resources PT Tables http://www.epa.gov/nelac/pttables.html Drinking Water MethodsNEMIRadionuclide page
39 Implementation: USEPA Drinking Water Certification Program Michella KarapondoU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
40 Topics Authority for certification program Program structure and responsibilitiesCertification process and criteria.
41 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Authorizes EPA to set enforceable health standards for contaminants in drinking wateraffects all public water systems serving at least 25 people or having at least 15 service connectionsrequired that the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations be draftedamended in 1977, 1979, 1980, 1986, and 1996 (reauthorized and amended).
42 Required By 40 CFR“… Samples may be considered only if they have been analyzed by a laboratory certified by the state except that measurements for alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, disinfectant residual, orthophosphate, pH, silica, temperature, and turbidity, may be performed by any person acceptable to the state.”
43 Primary Enforcement Responsibility 40 CFR 142.10 A State has primacy when…it has adopted drinking water regulations no less stringent than the Federal regulationsit has adopted and implemented adequate procedures for enforcement of State regulationsinventory of systemssanitary surveysestablishes and maintains a certification program and designates a CPM certified by the Administrator responsible for the State certification program
44 USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program Program began in 1978Hierarchical structureFundamentals are in the “Lab Cert Manual”Accept NELAP accreditation
45 Certification Program Structure USEPAOffice of Ground Water and Drinking WaterRegional Laboratory/Certification ProgramState Laboratory & Certification ProgramPrivate Laboratories
46 Certification Officers Should have a college degree in the discipline for which they certify and have recent laboratory experienceShould have experience in lab evaluation and quality assuranceSuccessfully complete EPA's Certification Officers training course
47 Scope of Certification Certification is granted in three areas:ChemistryMicrobiologyRadiochemistry
48 Certification Process Lab requests(re)certificationLab passesPT sampleLab certified for3 yearsOn-site auditperformedSet date for on-site audit
49 On-site Evaluation Items Are promulgated/approved methods being used and requirements of those methods metAre appropriate quality systems in placeAre personnel qualified and sufficientAre laboratory facilities, equipment and supplies adequateData audit
50 Types of Certification CertifiedProvisionally certifiedNot certifiedInterim certification
51 Certified Laboratory meets the regulatory performance criteria by: using promulgated/approved methodsdemonstrating successful performance on proficiency testing (PT) samples by analyte and method on an annual basispassing an on-site audit at least every 3 yearsMust notify Certification Authority of any major changes (personnel, equipment, facility)
52 Provisional Certification Laboratory has minor deficiencies but is still able to consistently produce valid data using promulgated/approved methodsinsufficient/incomplete documentationfailed PT samples
53 Provisional StatusMay continue to analyze compliance samples; however:Must notify clients of statusFor a limited time -- follow up is needed to ensure corrective actions have been completed or lab should be decertified
54 Not CertifiedLaboratory possesses deficiencies and cannot consistently produce valid datahas a lack of equipment/personnelmakes changes in method(s) that are not allowedis unresponsive to deficiencies found resulting in provisional certification
55 Interim Certification Impossible or unnecessary to perform an on-site auditfor new contaminantswhen no PT sample is availablewhen constraints prevent a timely on-site auditLasts until next scheduled on-site or a PT sample is available
56 More Drinking Water Lab Cert Information OGWDW Web siteTSC Lab Cert Team addresses:(micro)
57 Web Sites Laboratory Certification Manual, 5th Edition: Methods (listed by contaminant/method number):CFR:DW REGS:List of state certified labs:Proficiency Testing Samples:
58 Richard Sheibley Pennsylvania Dept of Env Protection Proficiency TestingRichard SheibleyPennsylvania Dept of Env Protection
59 Proficiency Testing Requirements At least one successful PT study per year (two PTs per year for NELAC compliance) for the following:Strontium 89Strontium 90GammaBarium 133Cesium 134Cesium 137Cobalt 60Zinc 65Iodine 131Gross alphaGross betaTritiumRadium 226Radium 228U (natural)
65 Radiochemistry Theory John LorenzMinnesota Department of HealthPublic Health Laboratory
66 What we’ll cover What radiation is Types of radiation What radioactive material isCharacteristics of radioactive material and radiationHow these characteristics affect analytical methodsMCLs and analysis (counting)
68 RADIATION IS ENERGY TRAVELING THROUGH SPACE IN THE FORM OF WAVES OR PARTICLES LIGHTMICROWAVESHEATRadiation is __________________ moving through space in the form of __________ or ______________NUCLEAR RADIATION
69 } } IONIZING vs. NON-IONIZING NON-IONIZING IONIZING LIGHT MICRO- WAVES HEATINGHEAT-}Radiation having enough energy to knock ______________ out of orbit is known as _______________ radiation.IONIZATIONNUCLEARRADIATIONIONIZING+
70 Ionization Ionization causes health risks Ionization allows detection _____________ _____________ use ionization to do analysis.
72 Radioactive Material - Atoms Nucleus with protons and neutronsOrbiting ElectronsThe atom is made up of a central ______________ and orbiting ________________.
73 Radioactive Material – Unstable Nuclei Improper balance of protons and neutrons in nucleusExcess energyA nucleus with too many neutrons or protons is ____________________.
74 Radioactive Material – Unstable Nuclei Reaches balance by giving off particles or energy waves or bothRadioactive Material RadiationThe change of nuclear structure is called nuclear disintegrationTo reduce the excess ________________ in the nucleus, it emits radiation.
75 Radioactive material Atoms emitting radiation are radioactive material A specific type of radioactive material is called a radionuclide___________________________ _____________________ is made up of atoms that emit radiation.A specific type of radioactive material is called a __________________.
76 Radioactive material Atoms emitting radiation are radioactive material A specific type of radioactive material is called a radionuclideRadium-226Radium-228Uranium-238Strontium-90Hydrogen-3Isotopesof RadiumRadionuclides of the same element with different masses are _______________.
77 Radionuclides can be represented in alternative ways Radioactive materialRadionuclides can be represented in alternative ways226Ra = 226Ra = Ra-226228Ra = 228Ra = Ra-228239U = 239U = U-23890Sr = 90Sr = Sr-903H = 3H = H-3(Tritium)8888Radionuclides of the same element with different masses are _______________.92381
78 Uranium Decay Series a a a b a b a a a b b b a b Th-230 77,000 y Rn-2223.8 dbPa-234m1.2 mPo-2183.1 minaaTh-23424 dabUranium samples frequently contain other radioactive materials because of the many radionuclides in the uranium decay series.When a sample containing Radon-222 is collected, its _______________ _______________ quickly reach secular equilibrium.Pb-21426.8 minPb-206StablePo-210138 dBi-21419.9 minbbU-2384.5E9 yabBi-2105 dPo-214160 usecPb-21022.3 y
79 Thorium Decay Series b b a a b a a a a b a b Ac-228 6.1 hr Th-228 1.9 yrRa-2285.8 yrTh-2321.4E10 yrbRa-2243.7 dayaaPb-208StableTl-2083.1 minaaRn-22056 secPo-212310 nsecbabPo-2160.15 secBi-21261 minPb-21211 hr
80 Types of Radiation Alpha (a) Beta (b) Gamma (g) There are other types of radiation, such as neutrons, neutrinos and heavy particles, but they are not an important source of exposure in drinking water.
81 ALPHA DECAY ++ NUCLEUS PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATION An alpha particle is made up of two neutrons and two protons. Because of its double ____________________ charge and its large mass, the alpha particle is ____________ _______________ penetrating.PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATIONLOW PENETRATING ABILITYSIGNIFICANT INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
82 - BETA DECAY NUCLEUS PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATION A beta particle is an electron ejected from the nucleus. Beta particles are _________________ penetrating.PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATIONMODERATE PENETRATING ABILITYPREDOMINANTLY INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
83 GAMMA DECAY NUCLEUS WAVE FORM OF RADIATION Gamma rays are very similar to ______________, but with a higher energy.X-rays are indistingushable from gamma rays, except that x-rays originate in the _____________ orbits rather than the ___________________.Gamma rays and x-rays have no mass.WAVE FORM OF RADIATIONSIGNIFICANT PENETRATING ABILITYEXTERNAL & INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
84 Characteristics of Radioactive Material ActivityHalf-life (T1/2)Random decayGeometryIngrowthThe varying characteristics of
85 Activity - quantitative Number of nuclear disintegrations per unit timeDisintegrations per second (dps)Disintegrations per minute (dpm)May be more or less than one radiation emission per disintegrationNot dependent on temperature or pressureActivity is the number of __________________ ___________________ occurring per unit ______________.
86 Activity Units Curie (Ci) 37 billion (3.7x1010) disintegrations per secondMillicurie (mCi = 10-3 Ci)Microcurie (mCi = 10-6 Ci)Nanocurie (nCi = 10-9 Ci)Picocurie (pCi = Ci)1 pCi = 2.22 dpmFemtocurie (fCi = Ci)A _________________________ is 37 billion disintegrations per second.The MCLs for radioactivity are given in ____________________ per liter.
87 Activity Units Becquerels (Bq) 1 Bq = 27 pCi 1 disintegration per second (dps)Megabecquerels1 Bq = 27 pCi
88 Activity - quantitative Proportional to number of atoms of radionuclideAtomsActivity_____________________ increases proportionally with the number of _____________ of the radionuclide.
89 Activity - quantitative Proportional to number of atoms of radionuclideFor Ra-2261 g2 g4 g1Ci2 Ci4 Ci
90 Activity - quantitative Inversely proportional to half-lifeT1/2ActivityThe relationship between activity and half-life is ___________________ _________________.
91 Half-life (T1/2)The time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decay, orThe time it takes for decay to reduce the amount of radioactive material by 50%.Half-life is the time it takes for the quantity of radioactive material to be reduced by ______________ percent.
95 Half-life (T1/2) T1/2 for commonly used radionuclides U billion yearsCs yearsCo yearsP daysI daysRn daysAc hoursF hoursThe _____________-_______________ of radioactive materials can range from a fraction of a _________________ to billions of __________________.
96 Half-life - Implications Decay correction: Accounts for difference from collection until analysisPrompt analysis needed for short half-life nuclides like Actinium-228(T1/2 = 6.1 hr, surrogate for Ra-228)Decay constant (l) relates activity to half-lifel = ln2/T1/2A = NlThe uncertainty in measurement of the activity increases with time for short half-life radionuclides.
97 Radioactive Decay is Random Variable decay rateSource of uncertainty in analysisReduced by longer timeReduced by higher activity20 -Radioactive decay is a ______________ process. The number of atoms decaying during any period of time will likely not be the same as the number decaying during any other period of the same length.15 -DecayRate(dpm)10 -5 -0 -1:002:003:00
98 Geometry Refers to the shape and position of the source Must be consistent for calibration and analysisGeometry refers to the position, shape and distribution of ________________ ______________ within the source.
99 Ingrowth One radionuclide decays to another radionuclide If decay product has much shorter half-life, its activity will equal parent’s activityThe decay product is being produced by the decay of the parent. Eventually, if the decay product has a much shorter half-life than the parent, it will decay as fast as it is produced.The process of the ____________ product’s activity equaling the ______________ activity is known as secular equilibrium
100 Uranium Decay Series a a a b a b a a a b b b a b Th-230 77,000 y Rn-2223.8 dbPa-234m1.2 mPo-2183.1 minaaTh-23424 dabUranium samples frequently contain other radioactive materials because of the many radionuclides in the uranium decay series.When a sample containing Radon-222 is collected, its _______________ _______________ quickly reach secular equilibrium.Pb-21426.8 minPb-206StablePo-210138 dBi-21419.9 minbbU-2384.5E9 yabBi-2105 dPo-214160 usecPb-21022.3 y
101 Thorium Decay Series b b a a b a a a a b a b Ac-228 6.1 hr Th-228 1.9 yrRa-2285.8 yrTh-2321.4E10 yrbRa-2243.7 dayaaPb-208StableTl-2083.1 minaaRn-22056 secPo-212310 nsecbabPo-2160.15 secBi-21261 minPb-21211 hr
102 Ingrowth - Implications Short half-life decay product as surrogate for longer lived parent (Ra-228 Ac-228)After chemical processing, allowing ingrowth of shorter lived nuclides
104 Characteristics of Radiation Physical form (Particle or wave)Energy (keV or MeV)ChargeMassPenetrationRangeAttenuationInteractions with matterVelocity
105 ALPHA DECAY ++ NUCLEUS PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATION An alpha particle is made up of two neutrons and two protons. Because of its double ____________________ charge and its large mass, the alpha particle is ____________ _______________ penetrating.PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATIONLOW PENETRATING ABILITYSIGNIFICANT INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
106 - BETA DECAY NUCLEUS PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATION A beta particle is an electron ejected from the nucleus. Beta particles are _________________ penetrating.PARTICLE FORM OF RADIATIONMODERATE PENETRATING ABILITYPREDOMINANTLY INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
107 GAMMA DECAY NUCLEUS WAVE FORM OF RADIATION Gamma rays are very similar to ______________, but with a higher energy.X-rays are indistinguishable from gamma rays, except that x-rays originate in the _____________ orbits rather than the ___________________.Gamma rays and x-rays have no mass.WAVE FORM OF RADIATIONSIGNIFICANT PENETRATING ABILITYEXTERNAL & INTERNAL EXPOSURE HAZARD
108 Other Origins for Radiation Internal ConversionElectron CaptureBremsstrahlungGamma rays are very similar to ______________, but with a higher energy.X-rays are indistinguishable from gamma rays, except that x-rays originate in the _____________ orbits rather than the ___________________.Gamma rays and x-rays have no mass.
109 Radiation Penetration alphabetaAlpha particles are the ______________ penetrating form of radiation, and can be stopped by a sheet of paper or dead outer layers of skin.______________ ___________________ are moderately penetrating and can be stopped by _______________ or __________________.Gamma rays are very ___________________ and require heavy _________________ such as lead, iron or concrete.gammaPaperLeadPlastic
110 Penetration - Implications a and b - intimate contact with detection mediumg emitters can pass through containers and detector housingsSelf-absorption can occur in material containing radionuclidesA sample containing alpha emitters must be ______________ so the alpha particles can reach the sensitive area of the __________________.
111 Self Absorption How absorption related to thickness affects counting efficiency3 mg. solids27 dpm8 cpm2 mg. solids18 dpm8 cpm1 mg. solids9 dpm5 cpmDetectorDetectorDetector
112 Energy Each radionuclide emits specific energies. Energies are expressed in keV or MeV.a and g emitting radionuclides have discrete energiesb emitting radionuclides have a continuous spectrum of energiesa energies are for the most part distinctly higher than b energies
113 Energy - ImplicationsEnergy spectrometry allows identification of a or g emittersEnergy “windows” can be set to look at only the energies of interest
114 Gamma Spectrum – fish from North Sea and Irish Sea
118 Ionization_____________ that are ejected from orbit may cause additional ionization.
119 Radiation interactions Transfer of energy to electronsa and b particlesContinuous interaction through matterGradual loss of energyDefinite rangeg raysInteractions are probabilisticMay transfer all or part of energy
120 Radiation interactions a and b particlesContinuous interaction through matterGradual loss of energyDefinite rangee-ae-e-
121 Radiation interactions g raysPhotoelectric, Compton, Pair ProductionInteractions are probabilisticMay transfer all or part of energye-gge-e-
122 Radiation interactions - implications Ionization may result in electrical pulse, light pulse, or electron hole pairsPulse size proportional to energy releaseda and b particlesAll energy released in detectorPulse is proportional to energy of radiationg raysIf all energy transferred, pulse is proportional to energy of radiation
124 MEASURING RADIATION 1 R 1 RAD 1 REM ROENTGEN (R) REM biological dose the energyof radiationREMbiological doseequivalentRADradiation energyabsorbed by anymaterialRADIATIONSOURCE1 R1 RAD1 REM
125 AVERAGE ANNUAL EXPOSURE NATURALLYOCCURRINGHUMAN-MADE70 mREM300 mREM
126 Basis for Radionuclide MCL’s Risk is based on amount of radiation, not mass of radioactive materialMost concentration limits stated as activity rather than mass.Activity not measured directlyCan use radiation emitted to determine the activity.
133 Factors in determining concentration Count rateCounter EfficiencyGeometrySelf-absorptionIntensity (# of rays per disintegration)Half-lifeSample mass
134 Analysis Against MCLsUse radiation emitted to determine the quantity of material.Measure counts per minute or per secondConvert to disintegrations per minute (dpm) or disintegrations per second (dps)Counter efficiencyGeometryEmissions per disintegration (intensity)Self-absorptionConvert to pCiHalf-life correctionDetermine concentration
136 Summary Ionization allows detection Counting technology is determined by properties of radiationMCLs are based on activity concentrationRadiochemistry vocabulary and technology are different from chemical methods
137 Radiation Safety John Lorenz Minnesota Department of Health Public Health Laboratory
138 What we’ll cover Radiation Basics - Review Radiation Health Effects Radiation Sources in the LabProtecting Yourself from RadiationProtecting Yourself from ContaminationRegulatory requirements
139 What has formed our opinions about radiation? Chernobyl
166 WHY IS CONTAMINATION A CONCERN? Exposure continues until contamination is removedContamination can spread to other people and objectsContamination can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption, or open wound absorption
167 CONTAMINATION CONTROL BOUNDARIESPROTECTIVE CLOTHINGREMOVAL & SEGREGATIONCOVERINGS
169 Regulatory Authority Nuclear Regulatory Commission Agreement States - 10 CFR 19- 10 CFR 20- Specific License- General LicensesAgreement States- Comparable State Regulations- State Licenses
170 Required Postings 10 CFR 19.11 or equivalent requires posting of NRC Form 3 or equivalent10 CFR 19 and 10 CFR 20License and License conditionsOperating procedures related to licensed activitiesViolation notices
171 Radioactive Materials Required PostingsCautionRadioactive MaterialsRequired for rooms housing more than:10,000 mCi H-3;100 mCi Cs-137;1 mCi Ra-2260.001 mCi Am-241
172 Required Postings – Greater Hazards CautionRadiation AreaCautionHigh Radiation AreaGrave DangerVery High Radiation Area
173 Labeling Required for containers holding more than: 1,000 mCi H-3; CautionRadioactiveMaterialsCs-137247 pCi mR/hr9/18/06Required for containers holding more than:1,000 mCi H-3;10 mCi Cs-137;0.1 mCi Ra-2260.001 mCi Am-241RadioactiveCautionMaterialsCs-137247 pCi9/18/06
174 Radiation DosimetryRequired if more than 10% of exposure limit is likelyMay be specified in licenseWorn on trunk of body
175 Radiation Surveys Frequency specified by license Trained personnel Appropriate instrumentation
176 Other Requirements Training – according to license Emergency proceduresAuditsInventory, receipt and disposalRecordkeeping
177 Summary Everyone is exposed to radiation Environmental radiochemistry uses low activitiesExposures should be kept ALARAPostings and labels indicate where radiological hazards may be presentState and federal regulations and licenses define radiation protection requirements