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Unit 1.3 Nuclear Chemistry

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1 Unit 1.3 Nuclear Chemistry
1.3-1 Types of Radioactivity

2 Learning Objectives By the end of this section you will be able to:
Observe nuclear changes and explain how they change an element. Express alpha and beta decay in nuclear equations. Model the half life of an isotope. Explain how half life is used to date materials.

3 Important Terms Radioactivity Alpha Particle Beta Particle Alpha Decay
Beta Decay Gamma Decay Half life Radioactive Dating Radioactive Decay

4 Discovery of Radioactivity
Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of radiation by an unstable atomic nucleus.

5 Chemical Reactions vs. Nuclear Reactions
Occur when bonds are broken and formed Occur when nuclei combine, split and emit radiation Involve only valence electrons Can involve protons, neutrons and electrons Atoms keep the same identity although they gain, lose or share electrons Atoms of one element are often converted into atoms of another element Associated with small changes in energy Associated with large changes in energy Temperature, pressure, concentration and catalysts affect reaction rates Temperature, pressure, concentration and catalysts do not affect reaction rates

6 Nuclear Reactions Nuclear reactions involve the protons and neutrons found in the nucleus During nuclear reactions a nucleus can gain or lose protons and neutrons.

7 Nuclear Reactions Remember that the number of protons determines the identity of an element. Changing the number of protons changed the element into another element. During nuclear reactions atoms of one element are changed into atoms of another element

8 Nuclear Notation Different isotopes of atoms can be represented using nuclear notation.

9 Review of Nuclear Notation
In your notebook write the following isotopes in nuclear notation. Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3

10 Radiation causes Radioactive Decay
Radioactive decay is the release of radiation by radioactive isotopes. Not all radioactive isotopes decay in the same way. Different types of decay change the nucleus in different ways. The three types of decay are: Alpha Beta Gamma decay

11 Radioactive ALPHA Decay
Alpha decay is the release of alpha particles (2 protons and 2 neutrons). Alpha particles are helium nuclei consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are represented as or α.

12 Radioactive ALPHA Decay
Alpha particles, which are large in size, collide with objects around them. Do not penetrate very deeply Are easily stopped by a thin layer of material.

13 Radioactive ALPHA Decay
Alpha decay causes the decaying nucleus to lose 2 protons and 2 neutrons. This means: the mass # decreases by 4 (2P and 2N) The atomic # decreases by 2 Examples Parent Daughter alpha particle

14 Equation for Radioactive ALPHA Decay
The parent element turns into a daughter element with a mass number 4 less and an atomic number 2 less than the parent! Does this reaction demonstrate the law of conservation of matter? How can we check it? Explain

15 ALPHA Emission + Energy! Two protons and neutrons are lost
The protons and neutrons leave as an alpha particle. + Energy!

16 Radioactive Alpha Decay
Write the equation for alpha decay for the following particle in your notebook. Thorium-230

17 Radioactive BETA Decay
Beta decay is the release of beta particles from a decaying nucleus. A beta particle is a high energy electron with a 1- charge. Beta particles are written as β- or Beta particles pass more easily through matter than alpha particles and require sheets of metal, blocks of wood or specialized clothing to be stopped.

18 Radioactive BETA Decay
The electron released during beta decay is not one of the original electrons that existed outside the nucleus. The beta particle (electron) is produced by the change of a neutron into a proton and an electron. Mass# is same! Parent Daughter Beta (add P+) (sub e-)

19 Equation for Radioactive BETA Decay
The parent nucleus turns into a daughter with an atomic number 1 greater. The mass number stays the same.

20 BETA Emission A neutron becomes a proton (which stays in the nucleus) and electron (which is ejected from the atom). ADD A PROTON and LOSE an ELECTRON + ENERGY

21 Radioactive BETA Decay
Write the equations for beta decay for the following particles. Magnesuim-27 Sulfur-35

22 Radioactive Gamma Decay
Gamma decay is the release of gamma rays from a nucleus. A gamma ray is a high energy form of electromagnetic radiation with out a change in mass or charge.

23 Radioactive GAMMA Decay
Gamma rays have high penetrating ability and are very dangerous to living cells. To stop gamma rays thick blocks of lead or concrete are needed.

24 Radioactive GAMMA Decay
During gamma decay only energy is released! Gamma decay does not generally occur alone, it occurs with other modes of decay. (alpha or beta)

25 Equation for Radioactive GAMMA Decay with Beta or Alpha Decay
When gamma decay is expressed in an equation it is expressed as γ. Electron from beta decay is captured to cause gamma particle to emit. The following equation shows both gamma and alpha decay occurring.

26 GAMMA Emission with Beta decay
Beta emission Co  Ni-60 + Beta e-  Ni-60 + gamma photon (particle of radiation) (excited state)

27 Construct a similarities and differences chart comparing the 3 types of decay! (10 min)
Decay Type Gives off Changes Nuclear notation by: Radiation penetration and harm to cells Alpha Beta Gamma

28 Similarities and Differences
Decay Type Gives off Changes Nuclear notation by: Radiation penetration and harm to cells Alpha 2 protons & 2 neutrons= Alpha particle= 42 He Mass number decreases by 4 Atomic number decreases by 2 Large particle, easily stopped by cloth Very low risk Beta Beta particle = electron = 0-1e Atomic number increases by 1 The mass number stays the same These high energy particles pass more easily through matter Need metal sheets to stop Moderate risk to cells Gamma A gamma ray a high energy form of electro-magnetic radiation No change in mass or atomic number BUT does not occur alone Accompanied by alpha or beta. Gamma rays have high penetrating ability To stop gamma rays thick blocks of lead or concrete are needed. Very dangerous to living cells.

Each correctly answered question is worth 1 point! What are the three types of decay? Explain what occurs to the element in each type of decay, be specific. A. B. C. Which type of decay is least harmful to living cells. Which is most harmful? If Uranium-238 alpha decays, what would the decay equation be?

30 Answers to quiz questions
Alpha, beta and gamma Alpha- gives off alpha particle which is 2 protons and 2 neutrons. It reduces the atomic number by 2 and the mass by 4 so becomes a new element Beta- a neutron becomes a proton and an electron and gives off the electron, it adds 1 to the atomic number but leaves the mass number the same so a new element is formed Gamma- just a gamma ray, pure electromagnetic radiation (energy) 3. Alpha 4.Gamma 5 238 U -> 234 Th + 4 He

31 Nuclear Equations: What type of decay is Represented
Nuclear Equations: What type of decay is Represented? Fill in the blanks

32 Nuclear Equations: try these!

33 Radioactive Decay Radiation can be detected with Geiger counters and scintillation counters. Geiger counters detect ionizing radiation. Scintillation counters register the intensity of radiation by detecting light.

34 Rate of Radioactive Decay
It is impossible to predict when a specific nucleus in a sample of radioactive material will undergo decay. The rate of overall decay is constant so that it is possible to predict when a given fraction of a sample will have decayed.

35 Half-Life Half-life is a term used to describe the time it takes for half of a given amount of a radioactive isotope to decay. Half-life varies greatly depending on the isotope


37 Half-life: How long is it?

38 Half-Life and Radioisotope Dating
Radioactive decay has provided scientists with a technique for determining the age of fossils, geological formations and human artifacts. Four isotopes are commonly used for dating objects Carbon-14 Uranium-238 Rubidium-87 Potassium-40

39 Half-Life and Radioisotope Dating;C-14
Carbon-14 Dating All organisms take in carbon during their lifetime. When organisms die they stop taking in carbon. Most carbon that organisms take in is stable (Carbon-12 or Carbon-13). About one atom in a million is Carbon-14. While the organism is alive the amount of Carbon-14 in its tissues remains constant. After the organism dies no more Carbon-14 is taken in and the amount begins to decline at a predictable pace. (half-life of C-14=5730 years)

40 Half-Life of Carbon-14

41 Half-Life and Radioisotope Dating
The half-life of Carbon-14 is years. Objects greater than 60,000 years old cannot be dated using this method because the amount of Carbon-14 that remains is too small to be detected. Objects greater than 60,000 years old are dated using: Uranium-238 (t½ = 4.5 billion years) Rubidium-87 (t½ = 48 billion years) Potassium-40 (t½ = 1.25 billion years)

42 Radioactive Decay Series: U-238

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