9Nuclear StabilityFor smaller atoms a ratio of 1:1 neutrons to protons helps to maintain stabilityC-12, N-14, O-16For larger atoms, more neutrons than protons are required to maintain stabilityPb-207, Au-198, Ta-181
11Radioactive DecayRadioisotopes will undergo decay reactions to become more stableAlpha DecayBeta DecayPositron Emission
12Nuclear ReactionsUnstable isotopes of one element are transformed into stable isotopes of a different element.They are not affected by outside factors, like temp and pressure. They can not be sped up or slowed down.
13General Reaction Format ReactantsProductsStarting MaterialEnding MaterialScience equivalent of Math’s =
14Reaction Format In Math class you might say: A – B = CIn Science, we don’t use subtractionA B + CA breaks into B and C
15Decay ReactionsDecay reactions involve one unstable nuclei decaying (breaking down) into 2 (or more) smaller nuclei.Alpha Decay - one of the products is an alpha particleBeta Decay - one of the products is a beta particle
16Nuclear Reactions Reactions must always Balance Mass Numbers have to balanceAtomic Numbers have to balance238 =92 =
69Stability Elements 1-26 are made in the core of stars Elements 27-92, excluding 43 and 61, are made during a Supernova explosionNo element larger than 83 has a stable isotopeNo element larger than 92 is made in nature