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Urban Politics, Populism, and Progressivism. Gilded Age 1870-1900 Term first seen in Twain & Warners novel The Gilded Age Term first seen in Twain & Warners.

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Presentation on theme: "Urban Politics, Populism, and Progressivism. Gilded Age 1870-1900 Term first seen in Twain & Warners novel The Gilded Age Term first seen in Twain & Warners."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urban Politics, Populism, and Progressivism

2 Gilded Age 1870-1900 Term first seen in Twain & Warners novel The Gilded Age Term first seen in Twain & Warners novel The Gilded Age Gilded- covered with gold, but made of cheap material Gilded- covered with gold, but made of cheap material beneath the surface (inventions, cities expanding, skyscrapers built & electricity) lay corruption, poverty, & crime beneath the surface (inventions, cities expanding, skyscrapers built & electricity) lay corruption, poverty, & crime

3 Urban Politics Political Machine- informal political group designed to gain & keep power Political Machine- informal political group designed to gain & keep power –In exchange for votes, the party bosses provided jobs, housing, food, heat, & police protection –Party bosses controlled the citys finances Grew rich by fraud (graft)getting money through dishonest or questionable means Grew rich by fraud (graft)getting money through dishonest or questionable means Example- Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall Example- Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall Boss Tweed

4 Urbanization Town populations of 2,500 or more grew from 10 mil. in 1870 to over 30 mil. in 1900 Town populations of 2,500 or more grew from 10 mil. in 1870 to over 30 mil. in 1900 Most immigrants lacked the money & educationstuck in the cities working long hours for little pay Most immigrants lacked the money & educationstuck in the cities working long hours for little pay In NY, ¾ residents squeezed into tenements (dirty, crowded apartments) In NY, ¾ residents squeezed into tenements (dirty, crowded apartments)

5 Problems of Urbanization Crime & Violence Crime & Violence –Murder rate jumped 25 to 100 mil. b/w 1880- 1900 –Nativists blamed immigrants for increase in crime Fire Fire –Buildings/apartments touching each other– fire spread easily Disease & Pollution Disease & Pollution –Improper sewer disposal contaminated drinking water –Smoke, soot, & ash accumulated from coal & wood fires

6 Populism- mvmt. to increase farmers political power & to work for legislation in their interest Farmers Grievances Farmers Grievances –Farm prices had dropped due to new technology –High tariffs made it harder for farmers to sell goods overseas The Grange The Grange –National farm organization –First met about social & educational purposes –Formed cooperatives (co- ops) –Failed in the 1870s Farmers Alliance- 1877 Farmers Alliance- 1877 –Formed when the Grange failed –Organized large co-ops called exchanges –Failed to fix farmers problems –Colored Farmers National Alliance 1891

7 Populist Movement Peoples Party (from the Farmers Alliance) Peoples Party (from the Farmers Alliance) –pushed for political reforms: Adoption of the sub-treasury plan (warehouses that stored crops) Adoption of the sub-treasury plan (warehouses that stored crops) Free coinage of silver Free coinage of silver End to protective tariffs & national banks End to protective tariffs & national banks Tighter regulation of the railroads Tighter regulation of the railroads Direct election of senators by voters Direct election of senators by voters –1892- nominated Weaver for Populist Party rep. for Pres. Cartoon, Houston Daily Post, March 30, 1896

8 Populist Movement 1893- Economic crisis- created a crisis for the U.S. Treasury 1893- Economic crisis- created a crisis for the U.S. Treasury –Goldbugs- believed American currency should be based on gold –Silverites- believed coining silver in unlimited quantities would solve nations economic crisis (supported by farmers) 1900- U.S. officially adopted a gold-based currency 1900- U.S. officially adopted a gold-based currency –Silver Crusade died out & Populism lost its momentum

9 Race Issue Mississippi (1890) required a poll tax of $2 & a literacy test Mississippi (1890) required a poll tax of $2 & a literacy test Some states gave whites a special break- grandfather clause (allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867) Some states gave whites a special break- grandfather clause (allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867) Segregation- separation of the races Segregation- separation of the races Jim Crow Laws- laws that enforced segregation (after Civil War) Jim Crow Laws- laws that enforced segregation (after Civil War) Violence- 1890-1899 (average of 187 lynchings carried out each year) 80% in the South Violence- 1890-1899 (average of 187 lynchings carried out each year) 80% in the South

10 African American Leaders W. E. B. DuBois W. E. B. DuBois –Said African Americans could regain civil rights & achieve full equality by demanding their rights! Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington –Said African Americans should concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal/political ones –Urged African Americans to postpone the fight for civil rights & instead concentrate on preparing themselves educationally & vocationally for full equality DuBois Washington

11 Progressivism 1890-1920 A collection of different ideas & activities designed to fix problems in American society A collection of different ideas & activities designed to fix problems in American society Believed industrialism & urbanization had created many social problems Believed industrialism & urbanization had created many social problems wanted govt. to take a more active role in solving societys problems wanted govt. to take a more active role in solving societys problems

12 Muckrakers *journalists who investigated social conditions & political corruption Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meat packing industry problems) Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meat packing industry problems) Ida Tarbell- critical of the Standard Oil Co. Ida Tarbell- critical of the Standard Oil Co. Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives (described the poverty, disease, and crime in NYC) Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives (described the poverty, disease, and crime in NYC)

13 Govt. Reforms 1. Direct Primary- all party members could vote for a candidate to run in the general election 2. Initiative- allowed a group of citizens to introduce legislation & required the legislature to vote on it 3. Referendum- allowed proposed legislation to be submitted to the voters for approval 4. Recall- allowed voters to demand a special election to remove an elected official from office before his/her term had expired 5. Direct election of senators- by state voters (17 th amendment)

14 Suffrage Movement *suffrage- right to vote 1848- began before the progressive mvmt. 1848- began before the progressive mvmt. Felt 14 th & 15 th amendments should be worded to include women Felt 14 th & 15 th amendments should be worded to include women

15 Suffrage Movement National Women Suffrage Association National Women Suffrage Association –Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony –Focus on passing a constitutional amendment allowing woman suffrage American Woman Suffrage Association American Woman Suffrage Association –Lucy Stone & Julia Ward Howe –Strategy- convince state govt.s to give women the right to vote before trying to amend the Constitution National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890) National American Woman Suffrage Association (1890) –Helped by Alice Paul & Carrie Chapman Catt –1912- WA, OR, CA, AZ, KS granted full voting rights –Nineteenth Amendment (1920)- gave women the right to vote

16 Social Welfare Reforms Child Labor Child Labor –1900- 1.7 mil. under 16 worked outside the home –Laws passed limited the age a child could start working Health/Safety Codes Health/Safety Codes –Building codes –Workers compensation –Zoning laws Prohibition Prohibition –Many progressives believed alcohol was responsible for many problems –Temperance Mvmt.- advocated the moderation or elimination of alcohol Socialism- idea that the govt. should own & operate industry for the community as a whole Socialism- idea that the govt. should own & operate industry for the community as a whole


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