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Terrorism.  Variety of descriptions and definitions  Tactic/strategy  Crime/holy duty  Reaction to oppression/inexcusable abomination  Depends on.

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Presentation on theme: "Terrorism.  Variety of descriptions and definitions  Tactic/strategy  Crime/holy duty  Reaction to oppression/inexcusable abomination  Depends on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrorism

2  Variety of descriptions and definitions  Tactic/strategy  Crime/holy duty  Reaction to oppression/inexcusable abomination  Depends on the point of view

3  “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological”

4  Violence  Fear  Intimidation

5  “Terrorism is the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance or political or social objectives”

6  “An anxiety inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi) clandestine individual, group, or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby- in contrast to assassination- the direct targets of violence are not the main targets.”

7  Criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim  Terrorists commit acts of violence that draws the attention of the local populace, the government, and the world to their cause

8  They plan their attack to obtain the greatest publicity, choosing targets that symbolize what they oppose.  Effectiveness of attack lies in the public’s reaction to the act

9 “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” This is misleading. This can make it seem like it is valid. If one commits a terrorist act, it is terrorism regardless.

10  Political  Psychological  Coercive  Dynamic  Deliberate

11  Act is intended to cause a political effect

12  Cause psychological effect (terror)  Population as a whole, ethnic minority, decision makers in political, social, or military area

13  Violence and destruction  Threat of violence produces intended effect

14  Demands change, revolution, or political movement

15  Planned and intended to achieve goals  Specifically selected target, not a random act  Victims are often of little importance  Victims or target can appear random

16  Information must reach the target audience

17  More operations are carried out in societies where individual rights and civil legal protections prevail  Usually avoid repressive governments

18  Exception is a repressive regime that does not have the ability to enforce security

19  Non-religious goals: highly selective and discriminate acts of violence to achieve the specific political aim  Often keeps casualties at the minimum necessary to attain the objective

20  Religious: inflict as many casualties as possible  Loss of life is irrelevant and the more casualties the better

21  Non religious:  Targets will be highly symbolic of authority-government offices, banks, national airlines, multinational corporations with direct relation to established order

22  Targets will be individuals they associate with economic exploitation, social injustice, or political repression

23  Religious:  Tend to connect with a greater physical devastation- and tend to add religiously affiliated individuals, such as missionaries, and religious activities

24  Common to strike on anniversaries or commemorative dates

25  Bombings  Kidnappings/Hostage Takings  Armed Attacks and Assassinations  Arsons and Firebombings  Hijackings and Skyjackings  Can also include robberies, extortion  Cyberterroism

26  Can be individuals, groups, or states  A “terrorist” will look, dress, and behave like a normal person, until he or she carries out the mission  Profiling based on personality, physical, or sociological traits would not appear to be very useful

27  Laws, deportations, enhanced police  Adding traffic barriers  Pre-emptive military action  Increased intelligence and surveillance activities  More permissive interrogation and detention policies  Acceptance of torture as a tool


29  Transatlantic flight from London Heathrow Airport to New York’s John F. Kennedy’s International Airport  December 21, 1988  Destroyed by a bomb- killed all 243 passengers and 16 crew members

30  11 people in Lockerbie, Scotland, were also killed as large sections of the plane fell in the town and destroyed several houses  Total fatalities: 270  Event is called Lockerbie Bombing

31  Thought to be an ordered attack by Muammar Gaddafi (Libya)  No emergency procedures had been started- explosion made a 20 inch wide hole on left side of fuselage  Disintegration was rapid  Nose of the aircraft separated from the main section within three seconds

32  189 were American citizens, 43 were British citizens  Deadliest act of terror against the U.S. prior to September 11.  At least four U.S. government officials on the passenger list- and potentially a fifth as well  Could one or more of them been the target?

33  On December 5 (16 days before attack) a warning was given  A Pan Am flight from Frankfurt to the U.S. would be blown up within two weeks by someone associated with the Abu Nidal Organization

34  Warning was taken seriously by the U.S.  In Frankfurt, the warning was found under a pile of papers on a desk the day after the bombing  PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) said extremists might launch a terrorist attack

35  Several groups claimed responsibility  Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (in retaliation for U.S. shootdown of Iran Flight 655 in Persian Gulf the previous July)

36  2003 Libya admitted responsibility but did not admit guilt  During 2011 Libyan civil war, ex- Minister of Justice Mustafa Abdul Jalil stated in an interview that Muammar Gaddafi had personally ordered the bombing



39  February 26, 1993  Truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center  It was supposed to knock down the North Tower into the South Tower

40  Killed 6 people  Injured 1042  In March 1994: four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing  Ramzi Yousef- mastermind behind bombing

41  He had spent time at Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan  1991 began planning the attack  Yousef’s uncle Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Ali Fadden, gave him advice and tips over the phone, and funded him (the uncle is considered the principal architect of 9/11)

42  Yousef mailed letters to various New York newspapers just before the attack- claimed to belong to “Liberation Army, Fifth Battalion”  Wanted U.S. to end all aid to Israel  End US diplomatic relations with Israel  Pledge by US to end interference with any of the Middle East countries interior affairs

43  Yousef and a friend drove a yellow Ryder van and pulled into the public parking garage under the WTC around noon  Ignited the fuse, fled  Bomb exploded and opened a 98 foot wide hole through four sublevels of concrete

44  Cut off main power line, knocked out emergency lighting as well  Smoke went up to 93 rd floor  Thick smoke went into the stairwells  Evacuation was difficult  Hundreds were trapped in elevators when power was cut (17 kindergartners on way down were trapped for 5 hours)


46  Series of attacks  Date of the bombings (August 7, 1998) was the anniversary of the arrival of American forces in Saudi Arabia  Linked to local members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad- Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri

47  Bin Laden went on the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list  Revenge for American involvement in the extradition, alleged torture of four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad who had been arrested in Albania in the two months prior to explosions

48  Bin Laden initially stated that the sites were targeted because of the “invasion” of Somalia  He told his followers that the genocide in Rwanda had been planned inside the two American embassies

49  Suicide bombers in trucks with explosives parked outside the embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi  Nairobi: 212 people killed, 4000 wounded (Kenya)  Dar es Salaam: 11 killed, 85 wounded (Tanzania)

50  Suicide attack on U.S. Navy detroyer USS Cole  October 12, 2000  Harbored in Yemeni port of Aden  17 American soldiers were killed  39 injured


52  Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack  U.S. judge held Sudan liable for the attack  $13 million in Sudanese frozen assets to the relatives of those killed

53  Small craft approached the port side of the destroyer and an explosion occurred  40 x 40 foot gash in ship’s port side  400-700 pounds of explosive were used

54  June 2001: Al-Qaeda recruitment video featuring Osama bin Laden boasted about the attack and encouraged similar attack

55  September 11 hijacker Khalid al- Mihdhar helped plan the attack (he was on American Airlines Flight 77, which flew into the Pentagon, killing 184 victims)

56  Afterward, people in Yemeni parliament were calling for jihad against America

57  Rules of engagement- kept guards from firing upon the small boat as it neared them without first obtaining permission from the Cole’s captain or another officer

58  U.S. law states that an attack against a military target does not meet the legal definition of terrorism  In Afghanistan the bombing was a “great victory for bin Laden. Al-Qaeda camps…filled with new recruits, and contributors from the Gulf States arrived…”

59  Both the Clinton Administration and the Bush Administration had been criticized for failing to respond militarily to the attack on the USS Cole before September 11, 2001

60  “Bin Laden complained frequently that the United States had not yet attacked [in response to the Cole]…Bin Laden wanted the United States to attack, and if it did not he would launch something bigger.”



63  Began September 18, 2001  Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic U.S. Senators  Killed five people  Infected 17 people

64  Bruce Edwards Ivins: scientist who worked at the government’s biodefense labs at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland  He was placed under periodic surveillance  Killed himself in 2008

65  August 6, 2008- federal prosecutors declared Ivins to be the sole culprit of the crime (even though they did not have any direct evidence)

66  First set of anthrax letters had a Trenton, New Jersey postmark dated September 18, 2001  Five letters were mailed at this point: ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, New York Post, and the National Enquirer in Boca Raton, Florida

67  It appeared as a coarse brown granular material looking like Purina Dog Chow  One man died in this wave, and others were ill

68  Addressed to two Democratic Senators, Tom Daschle of South Dakota and Patrick Leahy of Vermont  Daschle was the Senate Majority Leader  Leahy was head of Senate Judiciary Committee

69  Government mail service was shut down  Second round was more potent than first  Highly refined dry powder consisting of about one gram of nearly pure spores

70  At least 22 people developed anthrax infections, 11 had the life- threatening inhalation variety  Five died of inhalation anthrax  These have been compared to the Unabomber attacks

71  Some of the letters were bolded  TTT AAT TAT  Each sequence of three nucleic acids will cose for a specific amino acid  TTT: Phenylalanine (F)  AAT: Asparagine (N)  TAT: Tyrosine (Y)

72  Two possible hidden meanings:  1. FNY: verbal assault on New York  2. PAT: nickname of Ivins’ colleague

73  White House officials felt it was Al Qaeda responsible  We were trying to connect Iraq with it also  John McCain suggested on David Letterman that the anthrax may have come from Iraq




77  Look at the information about the Beltway Snipers  Review the information about Terrorism at the beginning of these slides  Your journal: Were the Beltway Snipers terrorists or was it murder? Explain your view and support it.

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