2Correct or Incorrect?The minutes from last week’s meeting is on the table. _____The residents of our county has many reasons to live here. _____My dog and my cat doesn’t get along with each other. _____Each of the horses are brown. _____The list of names are long. _____
3Correct or Incorrect?The minutes from last week’s meeting is are on the table.The residents of our county has have many reasons to live here.My dog and my cat doesn’t don’t get along with each other.Each of the horses are is brown.The list of names are is long.
4Subject – Verb Agreement Agreement is achieved in the present tenseA singular noun subject needs a singular form of the verb.A diver explores the beauty under the sea.A plural noun subject needs a plural form of the verb.Divers explore the beauty under the sea.
5Pronouns as SubjectsPronouns as subjects must also agree “in number” with the verbSINGULAR: I read.You read.He, she, it reads.PLURAL: We read.They read.
6Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects These are tricky! Know which ones are singular, plural, or both.SINGULAR: each, either, neither, anyone,anything, everybody, something, anotherEach of the boys is scheduled to work.Everybody walks to class together.
7Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects PLURAL both, few, many, several Both the dog and cat are fun to play with. Many children walk to the park.
8Some indefinite pronouns can be BOTH singular and plural all, none, any, most, some, moreONLY IF INDEFINITE PRONOUN is followed by a prepositional phrase , look at the object of the preposition to determine if singular or pluralAll of the book is ruined. singularMost of my grades are good. plural
9IMPORTANT NOTE!ONLY if an indefinite pronoun is followed by a prepositional phrase , use the object of the preposition to determine if singular or pluralMost of my grades are good. pluralNouns followed by prepositional phrases are still used to match subject-verb agreementThe city, with its bright lights, excites visitors.
10Compound SubjectsThe word(s) used to join compound subjects determines if the subject is singular or pluralVerbs should be PLURAL when joined by and or uses both / andThe girl and boy run in the 50 yard dash.Both student and teacher plan to read the book.
11Compound SubjectsVerbs should be SINGULAR when joined by or, nor, or uses either / or, or neither / norA ticket or pass is required to enter the gala.Either syrup or jam is offered for biscuits.The girl nor the boy wants to clean the desks.Neither rain nor snow makes for easy driving.
12“Here” and “There”“Here” and “there” are NEVER the subject of a sentenceLook for the subject AFTER THE VERBHere is the answer to the question.(The answer to the question is here.)There are many books about sports.(Many books there are about sports.)
13?? Interrogative Sentences ?? The subject may appear between the helping verb and main verbDo these stories interest you?(These stories do interest you.)Does he read books about baseball?(He does read books about baseball.)
14GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Subjects and their verbs must agree in number. SINGULAR subjects take SINGULAR verbs(except for the words you and I.)PLURAL subjects PLURAL verbs.Agreement can only be achieved in the present tense.
15The FIRST helping verb must agree with the subject The FIRST helping verb must agree with the subject! The class IS building bird houses.Prepositional Phrases will try to trick you. Always focus on the subject of the sentence.
16The FIRST helping verb must agree with the subject The FIRST helping verb must agree with the subject! The class IS building bird houses.RULES for Compound SubjectsSubjects joined by “and” are usually plural and take a plural verb.A compound subject that names only one person or thing takes a singular verb.Singular subjects joined by “or” or “nor” take a singular verb.
17When a Singular Subject and Plural Subject joined by “or” or “nor,” the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.The students or teacher is in the classroom.RULES for Other Special ProblemsThere or here are NEVER the subject.The contractions Here’s, There’s, and Where’s contain the singular verb “is” causing it to take a singular subject.
18Doesn’t is SINGULAR and Don’t is PLURAL! Most nouns ending in “s” are still SINGULAR.Words stating amounts are usually SINGULAR.
21Pronoun – Antecedent Agreement Note from yesterday ….Indefinite pronouns as subjects must agree in number with the verbEach of the books is open to the first page.Both of the doors are closed.PERSONAL PRONOUNS used in a sentence must be in agreement in number and gender.
22PRONOUNS are words that are used in place of nouns in sentences Ask Dan if Dan has done Dan’s homework.Ask Dan if he has done his homework.The ANTECEDENT is the noun that the pronouns replace (or refer to.)
23Use a SINGULAR pronoun when using 2 or more antecedents joined by “or” Either John or Jerry will bring his baseball.Sally or Jane will ride her bicycle to school.Use a PLURAL pronoun when using 2 or more antecedents joined by “and”Mark and Mary enjoy listening to their iPODS.Joe and Sue went outside so they could film the movie.
24When INDEFINITE PRONOUNS are the antecedent it still must agree with other pronouns in number and genderSINGULAR = Everyone pass his or her paper to the front.PLURAL= Both walk their dog in the afternoon.
25Use the same subject-verb agreement rule when the antecedent can be both singular and plural: Look inside the prepositional phrase to determine number ONLY with INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SINGULAR = All (of the class) passed its papers forward. PLURAL = All (of the students) passed their papers forward.
26Practice Sentences One of the girls wants me to help (her, them.) Each swimmer returned (his/her, their) towel.Each student should know what (he/she, they) must do.If anybody wants to go (he/she, they) should call the office.Neither Ralph nor Isaac brought (his/her, their) guitar to the party.
27The cast of the play is trying on (his/her, their) costumes. Everyone praised (his/her, their) child’s efforts.Both Kate and Catherine carry (her, their) backpack(s) home.One of the girls brought (her, their) track shoes to class.Neither Kate nor Sue finished (her, their ) report.
28GRAPHIC ORGANIZERPronouns – words that are used in place of one or more nouns or pronounsThe word that a pronoun stands for (or refers to) is called its antecedent
29Antecedents are nouns (or sometimes pronouns) in the sentence. Antecedents usually come before the pronoun in the same sentence.Antecedents sometimes appear in the sentence just before the one with the pronoun.
30A personal pronoun MUST agree with its antecedent in number and gender Under Indefinite Pronouns beside “BOTH”**Only look inside the prepositional phrase to determine the number of the subject
31Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by “or” Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by “and”