Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 26 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 26 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms
Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Characteristics: Simple body structure with no true tissues; multicellular, (hermaphroditesanimal has both male and female structures), asymmetrical Sessileno movement as adults; are filter feeders (catch food as it floats through them) Have pores that absorb water Spiculestiny hard particles of calcium or silicon compounds that make up skeleton
Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Reproduction: can be asexual (budding) or sexual by releasing sperm that enters other sponges through pores where it will fertilize the egg. After fertilization, larvae will develop. Larvae are immature stages of an animal.
Sponge Reproduction Spermcells Larvae Eggcell Flagella New sponge
Review Questions 1. What word means that a sponge does not move? Sessile 2. How do sponges eat? By filtering the water around them 3. What tiny, hard particles make up the sponge skeleton? Spicules
Phylum Cnidaria and Cnetophora Characteristics Radial symmetry with true tissues; cup/bell shaped Have stinging cells called nematocysts to help capture food Sting can be fatal to humans examples: hydra (very tiny jellyfish-like animal), jellyfish, coral, sea anemones Cavity Bud Disc Outer cell layer Jellylike layer Inner cell layer Tentacle Mouth Has one body opening made of two layers of cells
Body Form of Cnidarians Has 2 life forms during their life cycle: Polyp- has a tube-shaped body with a mouth surrounded by tentacles. Medusa- has an umbrella-shaped body called a bell. Polyp Medusa
Reproduction in Cnidarians Reproduction: Sexually and asexually through budding
Review Questions 1. What type of symmetry do cnidarians have? Radial 2. What are nematocysts? Stinging cells 3. Give an example of a cnidarian. Coral, jellyfish, sea anemone, hydra 4. What are the 2 life forms of a cnidarian? Polyp & medusa
Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms Characteristics Simplest animal with bilateral symmetry; have long, thin flat bodies. Usually hermaphroditic. Many are parasitic (ex: tapeworms, liver flukes)
Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms Reproduction Usually hermaphroditic and reproduce sexually. During mating, they fertilize each other at the same time. Some can reproduce asexually by regenerating (regrowing) lost parts. (ex: cut planarian: will grow back lost parts!)
Life Cycle of a Flatworm Adult flukes Embryosreleased Larva Snail host Larva Humanhost
Phylum Nematoda Roundworms and Rotifera Characteristics Bilateral symmetry, have both mouth and anus Live in soil, fresh and marine water. Nematodes: roundworms that are often parasitic Examples: Ascaria (intestinal roundworm about 1 ft long), hookworms, trichinella (from undercooked pork), pinworms, heartworms
Phylum Nematoda Roundworms and Rotifera Reproduction Most have separate sexes. Lay eggs.
Hookworm infections are common in humans in warm climates where they walk on contaminated soil in bare feet. Hookworm infections are common in humans in warm climates where they walk on contaminated soil in bare feet. FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Hookworms cause people to feel weak and tired due to blood loss. Hookworms cause people to feel weak and tired due to blood loss.
Pinworms are the most common human roundworm parasites in the United States. Pinworms are the most common human roundworm parasites in the United States. FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Pinworms are highly contagious because eggs can survive for up to two weeks on surfaces. Pinworms are highly contagious because eggs can survive for up to two weeks on surfaces.
FYI: Ascaris Eggs of Ascaris are found in soil and enter a humans body through the mouth. Ascaris worm coming out of a pig.
ANNELIDA Segmented worms Phylum: ANNELIDA Segmented worms Beard wormChristmas tree worm - Also have: (turn to pink sheet) Setae external bristles for movement Coelom true fluid-filled body cavity Ex: Earthworms, leeches Earthworms loosen soil and make it better for growing plants Reproduction Sexual: hermaphrodites (have sperm and eggs), cannot fertilize themselves. Description: (PG.16 Purple Sheet) Bilateral symmetry, segmented body, closed circulation (have vessels) and true digestive system, oxygen diffuses through skin
ANNELIDA Segmented worms Phylum: ANNELIDA Segmented worms CHARACTERISTICS: Body Temp - Ectothermic Symmetry - Bilateral Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – Closed Reproductive System – Sexual Heart Chambers – Heart Body Earthworm Leeches
Mollusks Class Gastropoda (snails & slugs)…2 nd largest class after Class Insecta Class Bivalvia Bivalves (scallops, oysters, clams, mussels) Class Cephalopoda (squid & octupi)…Only mollusks with brains!
Phylum: MOLLUSCA *from Latin word, molluscus - soft Description: * 2 ND Largest Phylum of Animals 3 Main Body Parts: 1. Muscular foot 2. Head 3. Visceral mass (its insides) FYI: terrestrial and marine Reproduction Sexual : most have separate sexes, produce gametes Giant clam Sea Slug
MOLLUSCA Phylum: MOLLUSCA CHARACTERISTICS: Ectothermic Symmetry - Bilateral Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – *OPEN* Reproductive System – Sexual Nervous System - Simple Heart Chambers - 2 or 3 in some Squid Nautilusoctopus
o Subphylum Crustacea (lobsters, crabs, crayfish…GILLS) o Class Insecta (all insects have 6 legs) o Class Arachnida (spiders & scorpions…all have 8 legs) o Class Diplopoda (millipedes) o Class Chilopoda (centipedes) Arthropods
ARTHROPODA Arthropods Phylum: ARTHROPODA Arthropods Crabs Bull Ant Description: Have segmented appendages ( joints ) that allow for flexibility Molting since exoskeletons do not grow, arthropods have to shed exoskeleton and form new one
ARTHROPODA Arthropods Phylum: ARTHROPODA Arthropods Crabs Bull Ant Description: Mandibles mouthparts for holding, chewing, sucking, biting Have segments fused into three main body sections : head, thorax, abdomen; a fusion of the head & thorax = cephalothorax
- Oxygen obtained through: gills, tracheal tubes, or lungs Metamorphosis series of 4 changes in shape and body structure during development. Incomplete metamorphosis only has 3 stages; once such an insect hatches, it looks almost like the adult version and is called a nymph
Many have camouflage to blend in with surroundings
Locust molting Lobster Evil Butterflies CHARACTERISTICS: Body Temp - Ectothermic Symmetry - Bilateral Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – Exoskeleton Circulatory System – Open Reproductive System – Very diverse Nervous System - Simple Heart Chambers – Muscular Tube
A termite mound made by the cathedral termite
The Arachnids: Ticks & Mites TickAmerican House Mites
Egyptian Sea Star Sand Dollars Description: Move with tube feet appendages with suction cups on tips FYI: Have mouth, stomach, intestines, but no head/brain All echinoderms have exoskeletons made of calcium carbonate. Reproduction Sexually with gametes, asexually with regeneration Feather Star Spiny Cushion Sea Star
Echinodermata Echinoderms Phylum: Echinodermata Echinoderms CHARACTERISTICS: Body Temp - Ectothermic Symmetry - Radial Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – Exoskeleton Circulatory System – Open Reproductive System – Sexual & asexual Heart Chambers – No true heart