Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Animalia. Bellringer 3/22/11Copy questions and answer on page 29 1. Which of these organisms do you think are animals? 2. On what characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer 3/22/11Copy questions and answer on page Which of these organisms do you think are animals? 2. On what characteristics did you base your answer? Porcupine Jellyfish Barnacles Sponges Gerbils
Characteristics of Animals 1.Multicellular 2.Eukaryotic 3.Heterotrophic 4.Have to digest food 5.Lack cell walls 6.Ability to move
Two Categories of Animals Invertebrates –Without a backbone Vertebrates –With a backbone
Growth and Development Fertilization: may be internal or external; most animals develop from a fertilized egg cell called a zygote. After fertilization, the zygote of different animal species all have similar, genetically determined stages of development.
Body Temperatures Endothermic vs. Ectothermic Endotherms are warm-blooded; they maintain a stable internal body temperature (by homeostasis) regardless of environmental temp. Ectotherms are cold-blooded; their body temperatures are dependent on environmental heat sources (temperature, basking in the sun)
Review Questions 1.What are the 6 major characteristics of animals? 2.What is fertilization? 3.Name an ectothermic animal.
Body Symmetry Symmetry describes the arrangement of body structures
Symmetry Asymmetry: body with an irregular shape –Ex- Sponges
Symmetry Bilateral – body can be cut in two with both halves being exactly alike. (Ex: Humans) Radial- body can be cut through any plane and be exactly alike (Ex: Starfish)
Anatomical Terms Dorsal/Posteriortowards the back Ventral/Anteriortowards the front Superiortowards the head Inferiortowards the bottom
Body Plan Terms Cephalizationconcentration of sensory/brain structures at anterior end of animal (head)
HOW??? 1) stores & digests food; 2)absorbs nutrients; 3) eliminates wastes Incomplete digestive system: one opening; food and waste enter and exit from the same opening Complete digestive system: two openings; food enters the mouth and wastes exit the anus Digestive System: Function = Provides energy
Skeletal System: FUNCTION = Provides protection Exoskeleton: –Rigid outer covering to protect the animals soft tissue –Limits size & impedes movement –Does not grow; must be shed & replaced Endoskeleton: –Internal skeleton –Can support a large, heavy body –Grows as the animal grows
FYI The endoskeleton is an internal skeleton that protects internal organs and provides an internal brace for muscles to pull against. Bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have endoskeletons made of bone.
Review Questions 1.What are the three types of symmetry? What are some animal examples of each? 2.What are some of the anatomical terms used to describe animals? 3.What type of digestive system do humans have?
Circulatory System: FUNCTION = Moves materials to and from the cells Open circulationfluid pumped from vessels into body cavity, then returned to vessels (Ex. arthropods and most mollusks) Closed circulation-- fluid stays in vessels (Ex. some mollusks, higher invertebrates, and all vertebrates
Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Hermaphrodites- individuals who have both male & female reproductive structure; usually sessile (fixed in one place) – this increases the chances of finding a mate
Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Asexual reproduction- Involves only one parent; no recombination of genesa clone is made Sexual reproduction- Involves two parents; recombines genes from two parents; helps with genetic recombination
Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring External fertilization- egg and sperm are released into the water; large numbers of eggs Internal fertilization- eggs are fertilized by sperm inside the mothers body; fewer numbers of eggs
Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Amniote egg; an egg enclosed in amniotic fluid and membranes for protection
Animal Phyla Phylum Porifera Phylum Cnidaria
Phylum: Porifera Sponges CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Asymetrical (no shape) Digestive System – None Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – None Reproductive System – Hermaphrodite or Asexual Examples - Sponges
Phylum: Porifera *means pore-bearing *simplest multicellular animals. Description: a.) sessile – do not move. b.) filter-feeders c.) no tissues or organs. d.) spicules make up skeleton. e.) osculum - opening at top
Phylum: CNIDARIA CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Radial symmetry Digestive System – Incomplete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – None *Reproductive System Hermaphrodite or Asexual hydra jellyfish Sea anemone
Phylum: CNIDARIA Examples: hydra, jellyfish, coral, sea anemone Description: a.) have tentacles b.) have nematocyst – stinging cells c.) body forms: medusa & polyp MEDUSA FORM – mobile POLYP FORM - sessile
Platyhelminthes Flatworms Phylum: Platyhelminthes Flatworms CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) BILATERAL symmetry Digestive System – Incomplete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – None *Reproductive System Hermaphrodite or Asexual planarian tapewormfluke
Phylum: Platyhelminthes *from Greek platy means flat, and helminthes means worm. Description: a.) soft, flat and unsegmented body b.) many are parasitic c.) a mouth but no anus d.) nerve system called nerve net. Examples: planarians, tapeworms, flukes Nerve net fluke
Life Cycle of a Flatworm Adult flukes Embryos released Larva Snail host Larva Human host
NEMATODA Phylum: NEMATODA ROUND WORMS CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Bilateral symmetry Digestive System – *COMPLETE Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – None *Reproductive System - * Hermaphrodites SPECIAL FEATURES: Complete Digestive System Hermaphrodites HOOKWORM trichinosis
Phylum: NEMATODA Description: a.) cylindrical, ROUND body b.) *contain 3 cell layers c.) *complete digestive system. d.) many are parasitic Examples: hookworms, pinworms, trichinella hookworm Ascaris Trichinella
Hookworm infections are common in humans in warm climates where they walk on contaminated soil in bare feet. FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Hookworms cause people to feel weak and tired due to blood loss.
Pinworms are the most common human roundworm parasites in the United States. FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Pinworms are highly contagious because eggs can survive for up to two weeks on surfaces.
FYI: Ascaris Eggs of Ascaris are found in soil and enter a humans body through the mouth. Ascaris worm coming out of a pig.
FYI: Heartworms Spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes. Most common host is the dog but it can also infect cats, wolves, coyotes, foxes and other animals, such as ferrets, sea lions and even, under very rare circumstances, humans.
MOLLUSCA Phylum: MOLLUSCA CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Bilateral symmetry Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – *OPEN* *Reproductive System – *Hermaphrodites (some) **SPECIAL FEATURES** –2 or 3 chambered heart. Squid Nautilusoctopus
Phylum: MOLLUSCA *from Latin word, molluscus - soft *2 ND Largest Phylum of Animals Description : a.) consists of shell and soft body b.) 3 Main Body Parts *head, visceral mass, and foot c.) have simple nervous systems and some even have brains d.) terrestrial and marine Examples: oysters, clams, snails, slugs, octopus, squid, nautilus Giant clam Sea Slug
ANNELIDA Segmented worms Phylum: ANNELIDA Segmented worms CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Bilateral symmetry Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – None Circulatory System – *Closed* *Reproductive System – *Hermaphrodites; Sexual Reproduction **SPECIAL FEATURES** Closed Circulatory System Earthworm Leeches
ANNELIDA Segmented worms Phylum: ANNELIDA Segmented worms Beard worm Christmas tree worm Description: a.) oxygen diffuses through skin b.) have setaeexternal bristles for movement c.) terrestrial and marine Examples: Earthworms, leeches, marine worms
ARTHROPODA Arthropods Phylum: ARTHROPODA Arthropods CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Bilateral symmetry Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – Exo- Circulatory System – *Closed* *Reproductive System – *Sexual Reproduction **SPECIAL FEATURES** Jointed parts Crabs Bull Ant
Locust molting Lobster Description: a.) have segments fused into three main body sections: head, thorax, abdomen b.) they shed exoskeletons by molting c.) terrestrial and marine (breathe by gills, chest holes, or lungs) Examples: Insects, arachnids, millipedes, centipedes, crustaceans Evil Butterflies
A termite mound made by the cathedral termite
The Arachnids: Ticks & Mites TickAmerican House Mites
Echinodermata Echinoderms Phylum: Echinodermata Echinoderms CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded) Radial symmetry Digestive System – Complete Skeletal System – Exo- Circulatory System – Open Reproductive System – * Sexually with gametes, asexually with regeneration **SPECIAL FEATURES** Both sexual & asexual
Egyptian Sea Star Sand Dollars Description: a.) have exoskeletons made of calcium carbonate. b.) Move with tube feet appendages with suction cups c.) Have mouth, stomach, intestines, but no head/brain Examples: Sea stars (starfish), sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, feather stars Feather Star Spiny Cushion Sea Star