2 Bellringer 3/22/11—Copy questions and answer on page 29 1. Which of these organisms do you think are animals?2. On what characteristics did you base your answer?GerbilsPorcupineSpongesJellyfishBarnacles
3 Characteristics of Animals MulticellularEukaryoticHeterotrophicHave to digest foodLack cell wallsAbility to move
4 Two Categories of Animals InvertebratesWithout a backboneVertebratesWith a backbone
5 Growth and Development Fertilization: may be internal or external; most animals develop from a fertilized egg cell called a zygote.After fertilization, the zygote of different animal species all have similar, genetically determined stages of development.
6 Body Temperatures— Endothermic vs. Ectothermic Endotherms are warm-blooded; they maintain a stable internal body temperature (by homeostasis) regardless of environmental temp.Ectotherms are cold-blooded; their body temperatures are dependent on environmental heat sources (temperature, basking in the sun)
7 Review Questions What are the 6 major characteristics of animals? What is fertilization?Name an ectothermic animal.
8 Body SymmetrySymmetry describes the arrangement of body structures
9 SymmetryAsymmetry: body with an irregular shapeEx- Sponges
10 SymmetryRadial- body can be cut through any plane and be exactly alike (Ex: Starfish)Bilateral – body can be cut in two with both halves being exactly alike. (Ex: Humans)
11 Anatomical Terms Dorsal/Posterior—towards the back Ventral/Anterior—towards the frontSuperior—towards the headInferior—towards the bottom
12 Body Plan TermsCephalization—concentration of sensory/brain structures at anterior end of animal (head)
13 Digestive System: Function = Provides energy HOW???1) stores & digests food; 2)absorbs nutrients; 3) eliminates wastesIncomplete digestive system: one opening; food and waste enter and exit from the same openingComplete digestive system: two openings; food enters the mouth and wastes exit the anus
14 Skeletal System: FUNCTION = Provides protection Exoskeleton:Rigid outer covering to protect the animal’s soft tissueLimits size & impedes movementDoes not grow; must be shed & replacedEndoskeleton:Internal skeletonCan support a large, heavy bodyGrows as the animal grows
15 FYIThe endoskeleton is an internal skeleton that protects internal organs and provides an internal brace for muscles to pull against.Bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have endoskeletons made of bone.
16 Review QuestionsWhat are the three types of symmetry? What are some animal examples of each?What are some of the anatomical terms used to describe animals?What type of digestive system do humans have?
17 Circulatory System: FUNCTION = Moves materials to and from the cells Open circulation—fluid pumped from vessels into body cavity, then returned to vessels (Ex. arthropods and most mollusks)Closed circulation-- fluid stays in vessels (Ex. some mollusks, higher invertebrates, and all vertebrates
18 Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Hermaphrodites- individuals who have both male & female reproductive structure; usually sessile (fixed in one place) – this increases the chances of finding a mate
19 Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Asexual reproduction- Involves only one parent; no recombination of genes—a clone is madeSexual reproduction- Involves two parents; recombines genes from two parents; helps with genetic recombination
20 Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring External fertilization- egg and sperm are released into the water; large numbers of eggsInternal fertilization- eggs are fertilized by sperm inside the mother’s body; fewer numbers of eggs
21 Reproductive System: FUNCTION = Provides offspring Amniote egg; an egg enclosed in amniotic fluid and membranes for protection
23 Phylum: Porifera “Sponges” CHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)Asymetrical (no shape)Digestive System – NoneSkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – NoneReproductive System –Hermaphrodite or AsexualExamples - SpongesPhylum: Porifera “Sponges”
24 Phylum: Porifera *means “pore-bearing” *simplest multicellular animals.Description:a.) sessile – do not move.b.) filter-feedersc.) no tissues or organs.d.) spicules make up skeleton.e.) osculum - opening at top
25 Phylum: CNIDARIA CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded)Radial symmetryDigestive System – IncompleteSkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – None*Reproductive System Hermaphrodite or AsexualhydraPhylum: CNIDARIASea anemonejellyfish
26 Phylum: CNIDARIA Examples: hydra, jellyfish, coral, sea anemone Description:a.) have tentaclesb.) have nematocyst – stinging cellsc.) body forms: medusa & polypMEDUSA FORM – mobilePOLYP FORM - sessile
28 Phylum: Platyhelminthes “Flatworms” planarianCHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)“BILATERAL” symmetryDigestive System – IncompleteSkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – None*Reproductive System Hermaphrodite or AsexualPhylum: Platyhelminthes “Flatworms”tapewormfluke
29 Phylum: Platyhelminthes *from Greek “platy” means “flat”, and“helminthes” means “worm”.Description:a.) soft, flat and unsegmented bodyb.) many are parasiticc.) a mouth but no anusd.) nerve system called nerve net.Examples:planarians, tapeworms, flukesNerve netfluke
30 Life Cycle of a Flatworm Adult flukesEmbryosreleasedLarvaSnail hostHumanhost
31 Phylum: NEMATODA “ROUND WORMS” HOOKWORMCHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)Bilateral symmetryDigestive System – *COMPLETESkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – None*Reproductive System - * HermaphroditesSPECIAL FEATURES:Complete Digestive SystemHermaphroditesPhylum: NEMATODA “ROUND WORMS”trichinosis
33 FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Hookworm infections are common in humans in warm climates where they walk on contaminated soil in bare feet.FYI: Roundworm parasites of humansHookworms cause people to feel weak and tired due to blood loss.
34 FYI: Roundworm parasites of humans Pinworms are the most common human roundworm parasites in the United States.Pinworms are highly contagious because eggs can survive for up to two weeks on surfaces.
35 FYI: AscarisEggs of Ascaris are found in soil and enter a human’s body through the mouth.Ascaris worm coming out of a pig.
36 FYI: HeartwormsSpread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes.Most common host is the dog but it can also infect cats, wolves, coyotes, foxes and other animals, such as ferrets, sea lions and even, under very rare circumstances, humans.
37 Phylum: MOLLUSCA CHARACTERISTICS: Invertebrates Ectothermic (cold-blooded)Bilateral symmetryDigestive System – CompleteSkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – *OPEN**Reproductive System –*Hermaphrodites (some)**SPECIAL FEATURES**2 or 3 chambered heart.SquidPhylum: MOLLUSCANautilusoctopus
38 Phylum: MOLLUSCA Giant clam Sea Slug Description: *from Latin word, “molluscus” - soft*2ND Largest Phylum of AnimalsDescription:a.) consists of shell and soft bodyb.) 3 Main Body Parts*head, visceral mass, and footc.) have simple nervous systems and some even have brainsd.) terrestrial and marineExamples:oysters, clams, snails, slugs,octopus, squid, nautilusGiant clamSea Slug
40 Phylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms” CHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)Bilateral symmetryDigestive System – CompleteSkeletal System – NoneCirculatory System – *Closed**Reproductive System –*Hermaphrodites; Sexual Reproduction**SPECIAL FEATURES**Closed Circulatory SystemEarthwormPhylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms”Leeches
41 Phylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms” Beard wormDescription:a.) oxygen diffuses through skinb.) have setae—external bristles for movementc.) terrestrial and marineExamples:Earthworms, leeches, marine wormsPhylum: ANNELIDA “Segmented worms”Christmas tree worm
42 Phylum: ARTHROPODA “Arthropods” CrabsCHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)Bilateral symmetryDigestive System – CompleteSkeletal System – Exo-Circulatory System – *Closed**Reproductive System –*Sexual Reproduction**SPECIAL FEATURES**Jointed partsPhylum: ARTHROPODA “Arthropods”Bull Ant
43 b.) they shed exoskeletons by molting Locust moltingDescription:a.) have segments fused into three main body sections: head, thorax, abdomenb.) they shed exoskeletons by moltingc.) terrestrial and marine (breathe by gills, chest holes, or lungs)Examples:Insects, arachnids, millipedes, centipedes, crustaceans“Evil” ButterfliesLobster
45 The Arachnids: Ticks & Mites American House Mites
46 Phylum: Echinodermata “Echinoderms” CHARACTERISTICS:InvertebratesEctothermic (cold-blooded)Radial symmetryDigestive System – CompleteSkeletal System – Exo-Circulatory System – OpenReproductive System –* Sexually with gametes, asexually with regeneration**SPECIAL FEATURES**Both sexual & asexualPhylum: Echinodermata “Echinoderms”
47 Egyptian Sea Star Sand Dollars Spiny Cushion Sea StarDescription:a.) have exoskeletons made of calcium carbonate.b.) Move with tube feet—appendages with suction cupsc.) Have mouth, stomach, intestines, but no head/brainExamples:Sea stars (starfish), sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, feather starsFeatherStarEgyptian Sea Star Sand Dollars