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The Circulatory System. What is the purpose of the circulatory system?

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Presentation on theme: "The Circulatory System. What is the purpose of the circulatory system?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Circulatory System

2 What is the purpose of the circulatory system?

3 O To move materials through out the body: O Oxygen O Carbon dioxide & other wastes O Nutrients O Hormones O Antibodies

4 What are the 3 types of circulation?

5 O System – between heart to body systems O Pulmonary – between heart & lungs O Coronary – between heart & heartS

6 What is coronary circulation?

7 O The flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart O When the coronary circulation is blocked, oxygen and nutrients cannot reach all the cells of the heart. This can cause a heart attack

8 What is coronary circulation? O The heart receives the oxygen and nutrients that it needs from the blood O The blood also carries away wastes from the heart's cells


10 What is pulmonary circulation?

11 O The flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

12 What are the functions of the systemic circulation system in your body?

13 It moves oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to organs and body tissues. It returns un-oxygenated (oxygen- poor) blood to the heart.

14 Trace the pathway of blood from heart to lungs and back.

15 A. Blood, high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen, returns from the body to the heart. It enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cavae.

16 Trace the pathway of blood from heart to lungs and back. B. The right atrium contracts, forcing the blood into the right ventricle. When the right ventricle contracts, the blood leaves the heart and goes through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries that carry blood that is high in carbon dioxide

17 Trace the pathway of blood from heart to lungs and back. C. Oxygen-rich blood travels from the lungs through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. The pulmonary veins are the only veins that carry oxygen-rich blood. C.

18 Trace the pathway of blood from heart to lungs and back. D. The left atrium contracts and forces the blood into the left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts, forcing the blood out of the heart and into the aorta.


20 List the parts of the circulatory (or cardiovascular) system:

21 O Heart O Blood vessels O Arteries O Veins O Capillaries O Blood

22 Compare & contrast the three types of blood vessels.

23 O All 3 blood vessels transport (move) blood. O Capillaries are only one cell thick. O Arteries & vein have 3 layers. O Veins have valves.

24 Compare & contrast the three types of blood vessels. O Arteries carry blood away from the heart. O Veins carry blood to the heart. O Capillaries connect arteries & veins. O Diffusion takes place in capillaries.

25 Describe arteries O Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart O Have thick, elastic walls made of connective tissue and smooth muscle tissue

26 Describe arteries

27 Describe veins

28 O Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart O Have one-way valves that keep blood moving toward the heart

29 What is the purpose of blood vessels?

30 O Blood vessels carry the blood to every part of your body

31 What is blood pressure?

32 What does blood do?

33 O Blood moves oxygen and nutrients to cells O Carries carbon dioxide and other wastes away from the cells O Sometimes the blood carries substances made in one part of the body to another part of the body where they are needed

34 What is the heart?

35 O An organ made of cardiac muscle tissue

36 Describe the heart

37 O Located behind your breastbone, called the sternum, and between your lungs O Has four compartments called chambers O The two upper chambers are called the right and left atria O The two lower chambers are called the right and left ventricles

38 Describe the heart O During one heartbeat, both atriums contract at the same time O Then, both ventricles contract at the same time O A one-way valve separates each atrium from the ventricle below it

39 Describe the heart O The blood flows only in one direction from an atrium to a ventricle, then from a ventricle into a blood vessel O A wall prevents blood from flowing between the two atriums or the two ventricles O This wall keeps blood rich in oxygen separate from blood low in oxygen O If oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-poor blood were to mix, your body's cells would not get all the oxygen they need

40 What is blood pressure? The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured by a sphygmomanometer. The pressure varies along the circuit – decreasing from artery to arteriole to capillary to venule to vein. Pressure is highest at the start of the artery and lowest at the entrance to the atrium. Blood pressure is much higher in the aorta than in the pulmonary artery.

41 What is blood pressure? The measures of a persons blood pressure it taken at a large artery in the upper arm. It is the pressure need to stop blood flow in this artery and is measured at diastole and systole. Standard healthy readings are 80 mm Hg diastolic, 120 mm Hg systolic. People with a diastolic number at or above 95 have hypertension (high blood pressure). It is usually caused by blockages in the arteries.

42 What is a pulse? O Your pulse is the rate at which your heart beats. Your pulse is usually called your heart rate, which is the number of times your heart beats each minute (bpm).

43 What is Pulse O As your heart pumps blood through your body, you can feel a pulsing in some of the blood vessels close to the skin's surface, such as in your wrist, neck, or upper arm. Counting your pulse rate is a simple way to find out how fast your heart is beating.

44 Blood What is it and why is it important.

45 The Blood


47 Blood The average adult has about five liters of blood living inside of their body, coursing through their vessels, delivering essential elements, and removing harmful wastes. Without blood, the human body would stop working.

48 Blood Major function Blood is the fluid of life, transporting oxygen from the lungs to body tissue and carbon dioxide from body tissue to the lungs.

49 Blood percentages 55 percent plasma 45 percent formed elements

50 Plasma percentages 90 % water 8% plasma proteins 2% hormones,vitamins,minerals etc.

51 Blood functions Blood is the fluid of growth, transporting nourishment from digestion and hormones from glands throughout the body. Blood is the fluid of health, transporting disease fighting substances to the tissue and waste to the kidneys.

52 Blood components Because it contains living cells, blood is alive. Red blood cells and white blood cells are responsible for nourishing and cleansing the body. Since the cells are alive, they too need nourishment.

53 Formed elements of the blood The most numerous of the formed elements are the red blood cells appearing in the largest numbers on a slide. The second most numerous formed element would be the thrombocytes (platelets) The least abundant would be the leukocytes( white blood cells)

54 Formed elements according to size Leukocytes (WBCs) largest Erythrocytes (RBCs) slightly smaller than wbcs on average Thrombocytes (platelets) the smallest

55 Formed elements according to total amount in the blood. Erythrocytes 99% of the blood Thrombocytes second most abundant Leukocytes are the least abundant But thrombocytes and Leukocytes only make up 1% of the blood.

56 Red blood cells (erythrocytes ) Red blood cells are biconcave discs. Make up about 45% of whole blood volume

57 Functions of RBCs Carry oxygen to the cells The most important chemical found in the red blood cell is hemoglobin A very important element in the hemoglobin molecule is iron Iron forms the weak bond and carries oxygen in the blood stream.

58 Leukocytes White blood cells The function of white blood cells is to fight off pathogens. The two major categories are the granulocytes and the agranuloctyes The granulocytes have granules in the cytoplasm and absorb different types of stains. (dyes)

59 Blood, what does it need? Vitamins and Minerals keep the blood healthy. The blood cells have a definite life cycle, just as all living organisms do.

60 Thrombocytes (platelets) Thrombocytes assist in blood clotting.

61 Blood subdivisions Approximately 55 percent of blood is plasma, a straw-colored clear liquid. The liquid plasma carries the solid cells and the platelets which help blood clot. Without blood platelets, you would bleed to death.

62 Blood loss When the human body loses a little bit of blood through a minor wound, the platelets cause the blood to clot so that the bleeding stops. Because new blood is always being made inside of your bones, the body can replace the lost blood.

63 Blood replacement When the human body loses a lot of blood through a major wound, that blood has to be replaced through a blood transfusion from other people.

64 Types of Blood But everybody's blood is not the same. There are four different blood types. Plus, your blood has Rh factors which make it even more unique. Blood received through a transfusion must match your own..

65 Blood Grouping: Examples Type A blood – has type A antigens on its RBCs – the plasma has no anti-A antibodies – the plasma does have anti-B antibodies Type AB blood – has both A & B antigens – has no antibodies (and therefore will not attack any other blood) – known as the universal recipient

66 Blood Grouping: Examples Type O blood – has neither A nor B antigens (and therefore will not be attacked by any other blood) – has both anti-A & anti-B antibodies – known as the universal donor

67 Donating blood Patients who are scheduled to have major surgery make antologous blood donations (donations of their own blood) so that they have a perfect match

68 Blood cell under a microscope

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