2BloodBlood is a heterogeneous mixture. It is a COLLOID, and has four main componentsRed corpuscles (redblood cells)White corpuscles (white blood cells)Plasma (fluid)Platelets
3Red Blood CellsCarry Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide with the help of HemoglobinThey are produced in the bone marrowThey live only 3-4 months and have no nucleus
4Blood TypesRed blood cells will have proteins which stick out. They are called AntigensThe opposite of antigens are AntibodiesIf an antigen meets it’s antibody, they clump and form clots, which are BAD!!
5Antigen on red blood cell ABO Blood TypesBlood TypeAntigen on red blood cellAntibody in PlasmaAAnti-BBAnti-AABA & BNoneOAnti-A & Anti-B
6Rh antigen: Rhesus System Blood, of all types, can also have an Rh antigen on them and there is an antibody for it.If a person has this antigen, they will have a + next to their blood type (ex: A+ means they have the A and Rh antigen)If a person does not have this antigen, they will have a – next to their blood type (ex: A- means they only have the A antigen)
7Donors & RecipientsWhen you are looking at donors and recipients, you must make sure the antibodies of the recipient do not attack the antigens of the donorONLY LOOK AT ANTIBODIES OF RECIPIENT AND ANTIGENS OF DONOR!!!The antibodies of the donor are not recognized by the recipients body and are destroyedO- is the universal donor and AB+ is the universal recipient for blood transfusions.
9PlasmaIt carries Nutrients and Hormones (chemical messages) to the cellsIt carries Urea and Carbon dioxide away from the cells.Plasma suspends red and white blood cells so they can flow through the body. It also has:- clotting factor- antibodies and- carries off solid waste.
10Platelets White blood cells Smaller than red blood cells Responsible for clottingLink together to form scabs when in contact with air.White blood cellsThey are the main defense against disease.No hemoglobinCan pass through capillary walls.
11White blood cells White blood cells kill bacteria and viruses through: Phagocytosis – eating them with help from antibodies2) Antibodies – Latch onto bacteria/viruses
12Pathogens Pathogens are viruses and bacteria. Virus Bacteria Smallest pathogenInvade cellsFew drugs to fight themTo kill the virus, you must kill the cellSingle cell organismsReproduce quicklyProduce toxins which destroy cellsCan be killed with antibiotics
13The Circulatory System The Circulatory System is the major transportation system in the body.Pulmonary circulation carries blood that contains carbon dioxide TO THE LUNGS, where it gets rid of the waste and is resupplied with oxygenSystemic circulation carries the oxygenated blood to cells in the body and supplies them with nutrients as well.
14Purpose It serves to: 1)transport food and oxygen to the body, 2) Pick up waste produced for removal from the body,3) Help regulate body temperature.
15The HeartThis is the motor (pump) that makes the system work.
16Inside the HeartThe Heart is made up of muscle tissue and has four main chambersThe right atriumThe right ventricleThe left atriumAnd the left ventricleThe heart also has valves to prevent backflow of blood
17The Human Highways Arteries Veins 3) Capillaries. The “highways” and “roads” of the body are collectively, they are called blood vessels. They are:ArteriesVeins3) Capillaries.
18Arteries Arteries take blood away from the heart. Arterioles are smaller arteries.They have thick walls and contain a layer of muscle.Blood pumped from the heart is under high pressure, so it produces small bulges along the artery.
19Veins They carry blood to the heart. Venules are smaller veins They have a thinner muscular layer with lower blood pressure.Surrounding muscles help blood to flow though veinsThey also contain backflow valves.
20CapillariesLink Arterioles to VenulesHave thin walls so gas exchange can happen.
21Blood CirculationRight Atrium Right Ventricle Pulmonary Artery Arterioles Pulmonary capillaries blood gets oxygenated Venules Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Left VentricleLeft ventricle Aorta Arterioles BODY’s capillaries Venules/Veins Vena Cavae (superior or inferior) Right atrium
22The walls of the left ventricle are thicker (more muscular) than those of the right ventricle because the left ventricle has to push blood into the entire body, whereas the right ventricle only has to push blood as far as the lungs.BLOOD ALWAYS LEAVES THE VENTRICLES, GOES THROUGH THE BODY, AND COMES BACK INTO THE ATRIUMS!!
23Blood Pressure Blood Pressure has two types, Systolic and Diastolic. Systolic pressure is measured when pressure exerted by blood on artery walls is at its maximum (when the ventricles in the heart contact)Diastolic pressure is measured when pressure exerted by blood on artery walls is at its minimum (when ventricles are not contracting)Blood pressure = systolic pressure (bigger #)diastolic pressure (smaller #)
24A REVIEW: Pressure F= Force A= Area Mathematically, Pressure (symbol: ‘p') is the force per unit area applied on a surface.p = FAF= ForceA= AreaThe units are N/m2 or Pa or mm of Hg
25REVIEW: What is pressure? Pressure is the result of molecules or atoms bouncing off each other and the surfaces that hold the fluid in.So what happens to pressure if we increase temperature?Hint:IT INCREASES!!
26So….. What happens to pressure if: You have a lot of force acting on a small area?High PressureSame force but over a larger area?Lower PressureLower force acting on a huge area?Very Low Pressure
27Area FormulaWhat general shape do you think our blood vessels are?They are Cylinders!Arteries have a bigger surface area so that they can withstand high force of heart on blood and pressure will be lower
28Compressible/Non-compressible Fluids In general fluids (gases and liquids) fit into two categories.Compressible: With increased pressure, the volume and temperature will change (decrease).Non-compressible: With increased pressure the volume and temperature will NOT change (decrease).Blood is a non-compressible fluid
29The blood vessel will burst! Fluids move from high pressure to low pressure area.What if the fluid can not pass?The blood vessel will burst!
30Heart HealthIf blood pressure is to high, you have Hypertension, to low, Hypotension.Hypertension is usually cause by a narrowing of blood vessels due to cholesterol build up.