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Chapter 14 Personality. What is Personality? zPersonality yan individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting yfour basic perspectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Personality. What is Personality? zPersonality yan individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting yfour basic perspectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Personality

2 What is Personality? zPersonality yan individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting yfour basic perspectives xPsychoanalytic xTrait xHumanistic xSocial-cognitive

3 The Psychoanalytic Perspective zFrom Freuds theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

4 The Psychoanalytic Perspective zPsychoanalysis ytechnique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions yFreuds psychoanalytic theory of personality sought to explain what he observed during psychoanalysis

5 The Psychoanalytic Perspective zFree Association ymethod of exploring the unconscious yperson relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

6 The Psychoanalytic Perspective zUnconscious yFreud-a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories yContemporary-information processing of which we are unaware zPreconscious yinformation that is not conscious, but is retrievable into conscious awareness

7 Personality Structure zId ya reservoir of unconscious psychic energy ystrives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives yoperates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

8 Personality Structure zSuperego ythe part of personality that presents internalized ideals yprovides standards for judgement and for future aspirations

9 Personality Structure zEgo ythe largely conscious, executive part of personality ymediates among the demands of the id, superego and ego yoperates on the reality principle, satisfying the ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

10 Personality Structure zFreuds idea of the minds structure Id Superego EgoConscious mind Unconscious mind

11 Personality Development zPsychosexual Stages ythe childhood stages of development during which the pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones zOedipus Complex ya boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

12 Personality Development Freuds Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth-- (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)

13 Personality Development zIdentification ythe process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos zGender Identity yones sense of being male or female zFixation ya lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved

14 Defense Mechanisms zDefense Mechanisms ythe egos protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality zRepression ythe basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

15 Defense Mechanisms zRegression ydefense mechanism in which an individual retreats, when faced with anxiety, to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated

16 Defense Mechanisms zReaction Formation ydefense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites ypeople may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings

17 Defense Mechanisms zProjection ydefense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others zRationalization ydefense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for ones actions

18 Defense Mechanisms zDisplacement ydefense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person yas when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

19 Neo-Freudians zAlfred Adler yimportance of childhood social tension zKaren Horney ysought to balance Freuds masculine biases zCarl Jung yemphasized the collective unconscious xconcept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history

20 Assessing the Unconscious zProjective Test ya personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of ones inner dynamics zThematic Apperception Test (TAT) ya projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

21 Assessing the Unconscious- TAT

22 Assessing the Unconscious zRorschach Inkblot Test ythe most widely used projective test ya set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach yseeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

23 Assessing the Unconscious- Rorschach

24 The Trait Perspective zTrait ya characteristic pattern of behavior ya disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports zPersonality Inventory ya questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors yused to assess selected personality traits

25 The Trait Perspective zHans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation UNSTABLE STABLE choleric melancholic phlegmaticsanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active

26 The Trait Perspective The Big Five Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Extraversion Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive

27 The Trait Perspective zMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) ythe most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests yoriginally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use) ynow used for many other screening purposes

28 The Trait Perspective zEmpirically Derived Test ya test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups ysuch as the MMPI

29 The Trait Perspective zMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile Hysteria (uses symptoms to solve problems) Masculinity/femininity (interests like those of other sex) T-score Hypochondriasis (concern with body symptoms) Depression (pessimism, hopelessness) Psychopathic deviancy (disregard for social standards) Paranoia (delusions, suspiciousness) Psychasthenia (anxious, guilt feelings) Schizophrenia (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts) Hypomania (overactive, excited, impulsive) Social introversion (shy, inhibited) Clinically significant range After treatment (no scores in the clinically significant range Before treatment (anxious, depressed, and displaying deviant behaviors)

30 Evaluating the Trait Perspective zSituational influences on behavior are important to consider zPeople can fake desirable responses on self-report measures of personality zAveraging behavior across situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality traits

31 Humanistic Perspective zAbraham Maslow ( ) ystudied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln) zSelf-Actualization ythe ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved ythe motivation to fulfill ones potential

32 Humanistic Perspective zCarl Rogers ( ) yfocused on growth and fulfillment of individuals xrequires three conditions: genuineness acceptance - unconditional positive regard empathy zUnconditional Positive Regard yan attitude of total acceptance toward another person

33 Humanistic Perspective zSelf-Concept yall our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, Who am I? zSelf-Esteem yones feelings of high or low self-worth zSelf-Serving Bias ya readiness to perceive oneself favorably

34 Humanistic Perspective zIndividualism ygiving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications zCollectivism ygiving priority to the goals of ones group (often ones extended family or work group) and defining ones identity accordingly

35 Humanistic Perspective Morality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based) Attributing behavior Behavior reflects ones personality Behavior reflects social norms and attitudes and roles Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) identity from belonging) Life task Discover and express ones uniqueness Maintain connections, fit in What matters Me--personal achievement and fulfillment; We--group goals and solidarity; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationships Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valued

36 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective zConcepts like self-actualization are vague zEmphasis on self may promote self- indulgence and lack of concern for others zTheory does not address reality of human capacity for evil zTheory has impacted popular ideas on child- rearing, education, management, etc.

37 Social-Cognitive Perspective zReciprocal Determinism ythe interacting influences between personality, thinking, and environmental factors Internal personal/ cognitive factors (I think about /like volleyball) Behavior (Ill play volleyball) Environmental factors (volleyball playing friends)

38 Reciprocal Determinism zFor example: Playing basketball (a behavior) leads to thinking about basketball, which in turn may lead to playing basketball. Seeing a basketball (in the environment) leads to thinking about basketball, which in turn increases the chances of noticing people playing basketball. Playing basketball may lead to environmental rewards, which in turn reinforce basketball playing. All three elementsbehavior, thought, and environment take turns influencing or being influenced by each other.

39 Social-Cognitive Perspective zPersonal Control your sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless zExternal Locus of Control ythe perception that chance or outside forces beyond ones personal control determine ones fate

40 Social-Cognitive Perspective zInternal Locus of Control ythe perception that one controls ones own fate zLearned Helplessness ythe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

41 Social-Cognitive Perspective zBuilt from research on learning and cognition zFails to consider unconscious motives and individual disposition zToday, cognitive-behavioral theory is perhaps predominant psychological approach to explaining human behavior

42 Personality- Summary The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques Evaluation Psychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-test between pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul- impulses and social restraints motivations tural impact Trait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit- influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under- as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability (b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situation patterns to situation Humanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory that about oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporary ones experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in- people and their situation, of peoples feelings of control tegrates research on learning, colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of peoples cognition, and social behavior, control behavior in particular criticized as underestimating situations the importance of emotions and enduring traits

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