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Ancient Egypt Daniel Gima, Jon. Itokazu Period 4
Ancient Egypt is made up of the thin strip of land that sits alongside the Nile River in the desert of North Africa. The Nile valley itself is ten miles wide and six hundred miles long. Egypt is split into two regions: The Valley/ Upper Egypt, and the Delta/ Lower Egypt. The Valley is a long narrow sliver of land in to the south. The Delta is a wide triangular piece of land where the Nile branches off into the Mediterranean Sea to the North.
The Nile spills over its banks from between June and October, this period is called inundation. This is essential for farming because it restores moisture and nutrients to the soil. In the summer the temperature often hits 100 degrees Fahrenheit, winter temperatures dip to 65 degrees Fahrenheit.
EQ Question To what extent did the rule of King Ramses II, amplify Egyptian economic and military power?
Chronological Timeline of Ancient Egypt
Before 8000 B.C. - People settled the Nile River in North Africa 4500 B.C. - Scattered Neolithic tribes began to farm, make tools and weapons, created artwork, built houses, and began to trade. These people became united in their efforts to control the dangerous Nile River. These settlements developed into Upper and Lower Egypt B.C.- Settlers on the Nile begin to use sailboats.
3000 B.C. - Upper and Lower Egypt was unified under King Menes, who started a dynastic system of ruling families who made Egypt into a powerful state. Also Egyptian hieroglyphics are developed 2900 B.C. – Egyptian government introduces a standard, official calendar B.C. King Djoser builds the first known pyramid B.C. to 2130 B.C. – The Old Kingdom, when the great pyramids where built.
2625 B.C. to 2500 B.C. – Fourth Dynasty, the Pyramids of Giza are built 2625 B.C. to 2130 B.C. – The Old Kingdom, when the great pyramids where built B.C. to 2194 B.C. – Pepi II reigns during the sixth dynasty at age six and rules for ninety four years. 2129B.C. to 1980 B.C. – The First Intermediate Period, a time of Egyptian civil war.
1980 B.C. to 1630 B.C. – The Middle Kingdom, period in which art, culture, and trade flourished. The military was also organized and new irrigation systems enabled thousands of acres of farmland to be used. There were 4 dynasties in the Middle Kingdom B.C B.C. – Twelfth dynasty, the classical period of ancient Egypt 1630 B.C. to 1539 B.C. – Second Intermediate Period. Asian immigrants known as Hyksos, settled in northern Egypt. These people gained political control over some Egyptian territories. Because of several weak Egyptian leaders, Egypt was not able to hold a central authority and the Hyksos took over Egypt.
1600 B.C. – Egyptian rulers at Thebes who had controlled a small piece of land built a powerful army and beat the Hyksos B.C. to 1075 B.C. New Kingdom, Egypt was a major economic and political influence in Africa and Asia 1514 B.C. to 1493 B.C. – Reign of Amenhotep I 1479 B.C. to 1458 – Hatshepsut takes the thrown as regent for Thutmose III 1458 B.C. to 1425 B.C.- Thutmose III rules
1353 B.C. to 1336 B.C. Amunhotep IV rules, he changes his name to Akehenaton, he rejects Egypts old religion in Amun in favor for Aten, the sun god of the city of Heliopolis, his religious monotheistic views were revolutionary B.C. to 1225 B.C – Rule of Ramses II
1079 B.C. to 656 B.C. – The Third Intermediate Period, decline of ancient Egypt, brought on by the invasion and defeat of Egypt by the Cushite Dynasty. Internal problems, foreign rulers, and invasions eventually brought ancient Egypts demise. Egyptian culture was then influenced by Persian, Greek, and Roman cultures, which changed Egyptian civilization forever. 664 B.C. to 332 B.C. – Late Period
Chronology of Ramses IIs Reign
June 1279 B.C. – Coronation 1276 B.C. – First military campaign in Syria 1275 B.C. – Second military campaign in Syria, battle of Kadesh 1274 B.C. to 1269 B.C. – Three more military campaigns in Syria 1262 B.C. – Possible exodus of Jews 1260 B.C. – Ramses II crushes a revolt in Nubia 1258 B.C. – Treaty formed with the kingdom of Hatti
1255 B.C. – inauguration of the temples of Abu Simbel 1254 B.C. – Nefertari dies 1249 B.C. – first jubilee, sed feast- reaffirms Rameses IIs power 1246 B.C. – second jubilee 1245 B.C. – First Hittite marriage 1243 B.C. – Third jubilee 1241 B.C. – Hittite prince-heir visits Egypt
1239 B.C. – Fourth jubilee 1237 B.C. – Fifth jubilee 1235 B.C. – second Hittite marriage 1227 B.C. to 1221 B.C. – three more jubilees 1220 B.C. – Merneptah named prince-heir 1215 B.C. to 1206 B.C. – four more jubilees 1214 B.C. – Ramses II dies
Bibliography Tiano, Oliver. Ramses II and Egypt. New York: Henry Holt and Company, King Ramses II. Kingtutshop.com. 1 March mses.htm mses.htm Day, Nancy. Your Travel Guide to Ancient Egypt. Minneapolis: Runestone Press, 2001 Johnson, Paul. The Civilization of Ancient Egypt. New York: Atheneum, 1978 Egypt. Bigfoto.com. 2 March ypt-pyramide-n3.jpg ypt-pyramide-n3.jpg