2IntroductionA pneumatic system uses air or some other gas to transmit and control power to perform work.Properties of a pneumatic system often make it the best choice for industry
3HistoryMan has used air to do work for centuries and today, pneumatic devices are a commonEarly man learned to attach sails to boatsWindmills were used to pump water and grind grain in the 12th centuryHelping solve part of today's energy problems
4HistoryScientists in 17th century began to study the properties of gases and the effects of pressure, temperature, and flowEfficient methods of compressing air were developedMan learned to use compressed air to do work which had been done manually
5HistorySince WW II the advantages of pneumatics has been fully utilizedUse of pneumatic devices has been expanding rapidly because:low cost, small size, high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility of use, long service life and ease of service
6Properties of AirAir is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen and oxygen, making up the earths atmosphereAt the surface of earth air naturally exists under pressure due to the weight of the atmosphereThe pressure is equal to approximately 14.7 #/in2 at sea levelThis pressure exerts force on all of the surfaces it touches
7Properties of Air Since this pressure is constant it is not noticeable Air has no size or shape of its ownIt always takes the shape of its container and completely fills itIf air is placed in a closed container, the pressure of the air will be equal force against all the surfaces within that container
8Properties of Air Air pressure is measured in pounds per square inch Reflects the amount of force a given air pressure exerts on each square inch of surface it contactsAs air is compressed it releases heatIn most compressed air systems a cooler is used to absorb this heat
9Properties of AirAs the compressed air is released to atmosphere it expands and absorbs heat.This is the reason air-operated devices become cool while running.Air has the ability to hold water vapor.This ability is affected by both the temperature and the pressure of the air.
10Properties of AirAs air is compressed, its ability to hold moisture is reducedThis causes water to condense and fall out of the airThis why water collects in a compressed air system and must be drained periodically
11Properties of Air Air is considered a fluid It always flows from the area of highest pressure to the area of lowest pressureAs a fluid begins to flow begins to lose pressureThe faster it flows the lower its pressure will become
12Using Air To Transmit Force A pneumatic system can use air to transmit mechanical force from one place to another.To do this mechanical force is first converted into a fluid pressure.The pressure is created by the compression of the air and is equal to the amount of force being applied against it.
13Using Air To Transmit Force A pressure of 100 pounds per square in is being applied to the surface of a piston which has a surface area of 12 square inches.This produces 1200 pounds of thrust.
14Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System Spark-ResistanceAir operated products generally are not likely to produce sparks, which makes then suitable for use in hazardous environment.ControlPneumatic systems provide a fine degree of control, allowing force to be applied where it’s needed, when it’s needed, and in the amounts needed.Remote or automatic control of pneumatic equipment allows the machine operator to be removed from the immediate area of the machine.
15Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System Light/CompactPneumatic products are very light and compact for the amount of power they produce.Used with less operator fatigue and allows stationary units to be mounted in confined spaces.
16Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System Instant ReversibilityMost pneumatic devices can be instantly reversed without damageSpeeds up production
17Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System No overheating/BurnoutEquipment can be used indefinitely under heavy load or stall conditions without becoming hot or damaging itself.Usually the more a pneumatic device runs, the cooler it becomes
18Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System SafetyPneumatic equipment has no chance of shock and usually operates at low pressures
19Advantages Of Using Pneumatic System CostOperating costs are low when considering service life, serviceability, increased production, reduced operator fatigueLower operating cost results in increased profitability