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Unit Two Force Transmission through a Fluid

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**Force Transmission through a Solids, Liquids, and Gases**

Solids transmit force in only one direction but fluids transmit force in ALL directions.

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**Force Transmission through Solids, Liquids, and Gases(Continued)**

Whereas liquids are relatively incompressible, gases will compress.

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**Force Transmission through a Solids, Liquids, and Gases(Continued)**

Gases compress until their pressure is equal to the force applied.

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**Fluids take the shape of their container**

The fact that fluids will take any shape gives them the property of unlimited conductive geometry.

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Pascal’s Law “Pressure set up in a fluid is transmitted equally and at right angles to all containing surfaces”

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**Pressure = Force/Area Applying Pressure**

An object at rest on the ground will develop pressure between itself and the point, or area, where it meets the ground.

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Area of a Circle The area of a circle is equal to the diameter squared multiplied by .7854

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**Fluid pressure to Mechanical Force**

A fluid under pressure is converted into another energy form at the point of operation.

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Fluid Power Cylinders The actuator is where pressurized fluid is converted into mechanical force for performing work.

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How Cylinders Work By allowing the fluid to contact a movable area, usually a piston, cylinders use the piston and rod to move a resistive object.

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**Mechanical Force Multiplication**

Actuators multiply force by applying pressurized fluid against a movable area that acts like a “lever.” Force = Pressure x Area

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**Intensifier and Intensifier Operation**

In operation, a intensifier is very much like a transformer. It “steps” up pressure but reduces movement because of a difference in volume.

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How Intensifiers Work In practical operation, the intensifier is used for momentary need of high pressure.

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Movement Sacrificed You generally do not get something for nothing so when Force is increased, something must decrease and that will usually be movement.

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Pressure Scales For measuring pressure we have two different scales. One, PSIA, takes into account the weight of the atmosphere.

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**Measuring Atmospheric Pressure**

The idea of the barometer is based on the observation of a liquid with a specific weight being held back by the atmosphere. Every cubic inch of mercury exerts a weight of .491 pounds per inch.

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**Absolute Pressure Scale**

Since the weight of atmosphere is based on altitude at sea level, any increase in land height will have a corresponding decrease in atmospheric pressure.

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Vacuum Pressure Scale Vacuum is any pressure below “atmospheric” conditions.

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How Vacuum is Measured Vacuum is measured on a gauge calibrated in inches of mercury so it matches the barometer scale.

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**Pressure Gages and Design**

Plunger design Bourdon tube design

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