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# Fluid Pressure Section 2. Pressure  Deep sea divers wear atmospheric diving suits to resist the forces exerted by the water in the depths of the ocean.

## Presentation on theme: "Fluid Pressure Section 2. Pressure  Deep sea divers wear atmospheric diving suits to resist the forces exerted by the water in the depths of the ocean."— Presentation transcript:

Fluid Pressure Section 2

Pressure  Deep sea divers wear atmospheric diving suits to resist the forces exerted by the water in the depths of the ocean.  You experience this pressure when you dive to the bottom of a pool, drive up a mountain, or fly in a plane.

Pressure  Pressure is the magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area.  Pascal’s principle states that pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container.

Pressure  The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, Pa.  It is equal to 1 N/m 2.  The pressure at sea level is about 1.01 x 10 5 Pa.  This gives us another unit for pressure, the atmosphere, where 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 5 Pa

Pascal’s Principle  When you pump a bike tire, you apply force on the pump that in turn exerts a force on the air inside the tire.  The air responds by pushing not only on the pump but also against the walls of the tire.  As a result, the pressure increases by an equal amount throughout the tire.

Pascal’s Principle  A hydraulic lift uses Pascal's principle.  A small force is applied (F 1 ) to a small piston of area (A 1 ) and cause a pressure increase on the fluid.  This increase in pressure (P inc ) is transmitted to the larger piston of area (A 2 ) and the fluid exerts a force (F 2 ) on this piston. F1F1 F2F2 A1A1 A2A2

Example  The small piston of a hydraulic lift has an area of 0.20 m 2. A car weighing 1.20 x 10 4 N sits on a rack mounted on the large piston. The large piston has an area of 0.90 m 2. How much force must be applied to the small piston to support the car?

Solution  Plug and Chug:  F 1 = (1.20 x 10 4 N) (0.20 m 2 / 0.90 m 2 )  F 1 = 2.7 x 10 3 N

Your Turn II  In a car lift, compressed air exerts a force on a piston with a radius of 5.00 cm. This pressure is transmitted to a second piston with a radius of 15.0 cm.  How large of a force must the air exert to lift a 1.33 x 10 4 N car?

Pressure  Pressure varies with depth in a fluid.  The pressure in a fluid increases with depth.

 Temperature: a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance  Kinetic Theory of gases: Predicts that the temperature of a gas is proportional to the kinetic energy of the particles in the gas.  **This means that the higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.

 The SI units for temperature are kelvins (K) and degrees Celsius (°C). To convert Celsius to Kelvin, add 273.  Example: Room temperature is about 20°C. What is that in Kelvin?  293 K

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