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Fluid Pressure Section 2

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Pressure Deep sea divers wear atmospheric diving suits to resist the forces exerted by the water in the depths of the ocean. You experience this pressure when you dive to the bottom of a pool, drive up a mountain, or fly in a plane.

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Pressure Pressure is the magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area. Pascal’s principle states that pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container.

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Pressure The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, Pa. It is equal to 1 N/m 2. The pressure at sea level is about 1.01 x 10 5 Pa. This gives us another unit for pressure, the atmosphere, where 1 atm = 1.01 x 10 5 Pa

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Pascal’s Principle When you pump a bike tire, you apply force on the pump that in turn exerts a force on the air inside the tire. The air responds by pushing not only on the pump but also against the walls of the tire. As a result, the pressure increases by an equal amount throughout the tire.

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Pascal’s Principle A hydraulic lift uses Pascal's principle. A small force is applied (F 1 ) to a small piston of area (A 1 ) and cause a pressure increase on the fluid. This increase in pressure (P inc ) is transmitted to the larger piston of area (A 2 ) and the fluid exerts a force (F 2 ) on this piston. F1F1 F2F2 A1A1 A2A2

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Example The small piston of a hydraulic lift has an area of 0.20 m 2. A car weighing 1.20 x 10 4 N sits on a rack mounted on the large piston. The large piston has an area of 0.90 m 2. How much force must be applied to the small piston to support the car?

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Solution Plug and Chug: F 1 = (1.20 x 10 4 N) (0.20 m 2 / 0.90 m 2 ) F 1 = 2.7 x 10 3 N

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Your Turn II In a car lift, compressed air exerts a force on a piston with a radius of 5.00 cm. This pressure is transmitted to a second piston with a radius of 15.0 cm. How large of a force must the air exert to lift a 1.33 x 10 4 N car?

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Pressure Pressure varies with depth in a fluid. The pressure in a fluid increases with depth.

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Temperature: a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance Kinetic Theory of gases: Predicts that the temperature of a gas is proportional to the kinetic energy of the particles in the gas. **This means that the higher the temperature, the faster the particles move.

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The SI units for temperature are kelvins (K) and degrees Celsius (°C). To convert Celsius to Kelvin, add 273. Example: Room temperature is about 20°C. What is that in Kelvin? 293 K

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