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Whats Different About Teaching Reading to Students Learning English? May 6, 2008 Charleston, West Virginia Lisa Tabaku Associate Manager, CAL Services.

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Presentation on theme: "Whats Different About Teaching Reading to Students Learning English? May 6, 2008 Charleston, West Virginia Lisa Tabaku Associate Manager, CAL Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Whats Different About Teaching Reading to Students Learning English? May 6, 2008 Charleston, West Virginia Lisa Tabaku Associate Manager, CAL Services Washington, D.C.

2 1 Agenda Objective of todays presentation: Participants will learn ways in which teaching reading to English language learners (ELLs) is different from teaching reading to native speakers of English. I. Fundamentals Underlying Instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) II. Experiencing the Differences Ourselves

3 2 Top Six Count Down Fundamentals regarding the Teaching and Learning of English language learners (ELLs) and Implications for Reading Instruction

4 3 Top Six Count Down: Number Six True or False? All English language learners (ELLs) are the same, and they all need the same kind of instruction.

5 4 Top Six Count Down: Number Six FALSE All English language learners (ELLs) are not the same, and they need different kinds of instruction to meet their needs.

6 5 Top Six Count Down: Number Six All English language learners (ELLs) are not the same, and they need different kinds of instruction to meet their needs. (Freeman & Freeman, 2002) What are the implications for Reading? One size wont fit all: Reading instruction will need to be tailored to the kind of ELL we are teaching.

7 6 Top Six Count Down: Number Five True or False? In previous times, ELLs learned English quickly and assimilated rapidly into American schools.

8 7 Top Six Count Down: Number Five FALSE At the turn of the previous century, ELLs often did not stay in school but, instead, moved quickly into the workplace.

9 8 Top Six Count Down: Number Five At the turn of the previous century, ELLs often did not stay in school but, instead, moved quickly into the workplace. What are the implications for Reading? The world is no longer the place it was in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ELLs must learn to read, and comprehend challenging academic content, if they are to succeed in todays economy.

10 9 Top Six Count Down: Number Four True or False? Once our ELLs have learned to speak, they have acquired the English language.

11 10 Top Six Count Down: Number Four FALSE Language acquisition, especially for academic purposes, involves all four domains: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. (Cummins, 1980)

12 11 Top Six Count Down: Number Four Language acquisition, especially for academic purposes, involves all four domains: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing What are the implications for Reading? We cannot mistake oral, social communicative skills for fluent English proficiency.

13 12 Top Six Count Down: Number Three True or False? Native language plays no role in second language acquisition.

14 13 Top Six Count Down: Number Three FALSE Native language plays a large role in second language acquisition.

15 14 Top Six Count Down: Number Three Native language plays a large role in second language acquisition. What are the implications for Reading? If students are literate in their first language and new to the English language, then many of the concepts they have about literacy will transfer to learning the second language. (Cummins, 1992)

16 15 Top Six Count Down: Number Three Native language plays a large role in second language acquisition. What are the implications for Reading? If students are not literate in their first language and new to the English language, learning to read in English will be much more difficult.

17 16 Top Six Count Down: Number Three Native language plays a large role in second language acquisition. What are the implications for Reading? Use the native language when possible If you cannot use the native language, be sure that your instruction has meaning for the students Encourage parents to use their native language with their children at home

18 17 Top Six Count Down: Number Two True or False? Affirming an ELLs first language and culture is irrelevant to their academic success.

19 18 Top Six Count Down: Number Two FALSE Affirming an ELLs first language and culture is critical to their academic success. (Beaulieu, 2002)

20 19 Top Six Count Down: Number Two Affirming an ELLs heritage language and culture is critical to their academic success. What are the implications for Reading? Using reading material that reflects the heritage of our students lowers the affective filter (Krashen, 1981), stimulates motivation (Walqui, 2000) and enriches every student in the classroom (Menkart, 1993).

21 20 Top Six Count Down: Number One True or False? It takes forever for ELLs to be able to compete academically with their peers.

22 21 Top Six Count Down: Number One FALSE With proper attention and instruction, ELLs will be able to compete academically with their peers sooner than you think. (Calderon, 2007)

23 22 Top Six Count Down: Number One With proper attention and instruction, ELLs will be able to compete academically with their peers sooner than you think. What are the implications for Reading? We need not wait until ELLs are orally proficient before we begin to teach reading. (National Literacy Panel, August and Shanahan, 2006)

24 23 Whats Different About Teaching Reading for Students Learning English?

25 24 Whats Different About Teaching Reading for Students Learning English? Research Base: National Reading Panel (2000) Core elements of literacy for L1 students also apply to L2 speakers of English National Literacy Panel (2006) Although L2 needs are compatible with Reading First, August and Shanahan (2006) note differences in instructional implications for L2 learners, including emphasis needed on oral language and vocabulary development.

26 25 Whats Different About Teaching Reading for Students Learning English? Goals of the Program Develop an understanding of how learning to read in English differs for native English speakers and English language learners Understand five components of reading instruction that are the foundation of successful reading programs (Reading First) Identify effective strategies to improve reading instruction for native English speakers and English language learners in elementary and middle school classrooms

27 26 Whats Different About Teaching Reading for Students Learning English? Incorporates key findings of the National Research Panel: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension

28 27 Whats Different About Teaching Reading for Students Learning English? Teaching Reading: Focus on ELLs Comprehension Vocabulary Development Beginning Reading (phonemic awareness and phonics) Fluency

29 28 A Principles to Practice Approach The Four Principles 1.Increase Comprehensibility 2.Increase Student-to-Student Interaction 3.Increase Higher-Order Thinking and use of Learning Strategies 4.Make Connections to Students Lives and Cultures

30 29 Whats Different… ? Chapter 1 The Nature of Reading We will watch a segment of a video entitled, Why Reading is Hard? (Catherine Snow and Lily Wong- Filmore) We will learn to read in Arabic. Study Guide, pages 24-32

31 30 Whats Different… ? Chapter 1 The Nature of Reading Reflections on learning to read in Arabic. Turn and Talk with a Partner.

32 31 Whats Different… ? Chapter 2 Comprehension Sample Text: Read the text that will appear on the next slide.

33 32 Comprehension In addition there were at Alexandria, in the great library and in the private libraries of the mystics, all those various sources of information, and in the intellectual and religious atmosphere of the place all those synthetical and theosophical tendencies which make for the formulation of a universal system of religion. And this we know was the task that Valentinus set before him as his goal. He determined to syntheticize the Gnosis, every phase of which was already in some sort a synthesis. But in so doing, Valentinus did not propose to attack or abandon the general faith, or to estrange the popular evolution of Christianity which has since been called the Catholic Church. He most probably remained a Catholic Christian to the end of his life. Fragments Of A Faith Forgotten: Some Short Sketches Among The Gnostics by G. R. S. MeadG. R. S. Mead

34 33 Comprehension How do we make the text comprehensible? Before Reading: Provide background Preview vocabulary During Reading: Parse text, guide After Reading: Reinforce vocabulary Review Study Guide, pages

35 34 Comprehension - Before Reading How do we make the text comprehensible? Before Reading: Provide background What is Gnosis? A religion most prevalent during the middle of the 2nd century AD; Combined Christianity with older Greek religious beliefs Followers believed that God is revealed through personal revelation. Who was Valentius? A bishop expelled from the Christian church in 155 AD because he believed in and preached about Gnosis.

36 35 Comprehension - Before Reading How do we make the text comprehensible? Before Reading: Preview vocabulary Gnostic = a person who believes in Gnosis theosophical = a philosophy that believes that knowledge of God can be achieved through special, individual experiences of God synthetical, syntheticize, synthesis = finding truth through experience to estrange = to alienate

37 36 Comprehension - During Reading How do we make the text comprehensible? During Reading: Parse text, guide the reading In addition there were at Alexandria, in the great library and in the private libraries of the mystics, all those various sources of information [In libraries in Alexandria], and in the intellectual and religious atmosphere of the place [and in intellectual and religious circles in Alexandria] all those synthetical and theosophical tendencies which make for the formulation of a universal system of religion [there were spiritual movements that lent themselves to the creation of a universal system of religion-- that religion ultimately being Christianity].

38 37 Comprehension - During Reading And this we know was the task that Valentinus set before him as his goal. He determined to syntheticize the Gnosis, [Valentinus tried to find truth in his religion through personal, spiritual experience] every phase of which was already in some sort a synthesis. But in so doing, Valentinus did not propose to attack or abandon the general faith, or to estrange the popular evolution of Christianity which has since been called the Catholic Church. [Valentinus didnt think that his views were in conflict with Christian beliefs.] He most probably remained a Catholic Christian to the end of his life.

39 38 Comprehension - After Reading How do we make the text comprehensible? After Reading: Reinforce vocabulary Draw a picture that will help you remember these vocabulary words. theosophical = a philosophy that believes that knowledge of God can be achieved through special individual relations with God synthetical, syntheticize, synthesis = finding truth through experience to estrange = to alienate

40 39 Comprehension - After Reading Review and Extend Through Writing (Personalize) You are Valentius. You are writing in your diary. Write about being expelled from the Church, why you believe in Gnosis, and why you also believe you are still a Christian. (presumes you read more than this one passage)

41 40 Comprehension Use text that your ELLs will find interesting and will be motivated to read.

42 41 Comprehension Timber Rattler is Now the State's [WVs] Official Reptile Governor Joe Manchin gave more than a few cautious glances to his right as he welcomed students from Romney Middle School to his office in Charleston Thursday. It isn't often the governor addresses guests with a three-foot rattlesnake eyeballing him from four feet away. However, the snake was safely secured in a glass aquarium and seemed disinterested in being the guest of honor as Manchin signed the bill proclaiming the timber rattler West Virginia's official state reptile."When kids come into the office I ask them all of the questions, the state animal, the state fish, and the state bird. This will become the newest question and only those who are in attendance today will know the answer, said Manchin. The resolution was the idea of students at Romney Middle School in Hampshire County. Teacher Ron Wolford said part of the curriculum called for the class to produce a piece of mock legislation."We just decided to go ahead and make a real bill," said Wolford. Metro News

43 42 Whats Different… ? Chapter 3 Vocabulary Cognates What do these Spanish words mean in English? costa desierto oceano mont aña s ca ñ ón Study Guide, pages

44 43 Whats Different… ? Chapter 3 Vocabulary Activities for Vocabulary Development 1.Take three items that you brought with you today and put them on your table. 2.Write the names of the objects on the index cards provided. 3.Now sort/categorize them. Adapted from C.Collier (2007)

45 44 Whats Different… ? Chapter 3 Vocabulary Vocabulary Development Reflection Turn and Talk Study Guide, page 120

46 45 Whats Different… ? Chapter 4 Beginning Reading Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Considerations for ELLs ELLs not literate in first language ELLs with different sound system in L1 ELLs with nonalphabetic writing systems ELLs with similar sounds systems using alphabetic writing systems (like Spanish)

47 46 Whats Different… ? Beginning Reading Activity: Name the beginning sounds for each of the words in the pictures IN GERMAN.

48 47 Whats Different… ? KuhBlumenHase Study Guide, pages 144,150

49 48 Whats Different… ? Fluency Chapter 5 Fluency Activity: Use reading pg. 178 of Study Guide Grade 6 Where Did You Get Those Jeans? Work in Pairs Identify yourself as A. or B. A: Reads first for one minute. Note the number of words you read B: Reads next for one minute. Note the number of words read. A: Reads again, and notes improvement, as the case may be. B: Reads again, and notes improvement, as the case may be. (William Grabe, TESOL, 2008)

50 49 A Principles to Practice Approach The Four Principles 1.Increase Comprehensibility 2.Increase Student-to-Student Interaction 3.Increase Higher-Order Thinking and use of Learning Strategies 4.Make Connections to Students Lives and Cultures

51 50 Contact Information Lisa Tabaku Associate Manager, CAL Services The Center for Applied Linguistics th St., N.W. Washington, D.C Main: ext. 510 Direct: Fax:


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