Presentation on theme: "Invasive Ecology Unit Seven. Objectives Identify plant pests common to Western Washington Insects Weeds Disease Animals Describe the signs of pest damage."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Identify plant pests common to Western Washington Insects Weeds Disease Animals Describe the signs of pest damage Differentiate between types of pests in diagnosing pest damage Demonstrate the use of appropriate control (integrated Pest Management) and eradication methods Various case studies
Invasive Ecology Is the content area that covers any insect, fungus, or plant invasive species. These invasive species will negatively affect the host plant or host location. One invasive could have a very wide and detrimental affect on an ecosystem. How can an invasive plant cause damage to an ecosystem
Chestnut Blight Why are the researchers pollinating this chestnut tree manually? Why does it take three visits to the tree to do what nature normally does on its own? The scientists do not manually pollinate every flower on the Adair Count tree because the tree is so large and because this leaves some flowers as a control. Explain how the untreated flowers are a scientific control and why having a control samples is important to any scientific endeavor. Estimate how long it takes to produce blight resistant progeny in a program involving one cross, three backcrosses, and intercross.
Entry Task Because crop yields or quality may be reduced by weeds, it is important that farmers receive a higher price for these products to help offset these losses. For example, if corn yields are reduced from 100 to 80 bushels an acre by weed competition, then the farmer would have to receive an increase of 25% in price to offset the loss in yield: If farmer A sold 100 bushels @$2.00=$200 If farmer B sold 80 bushels and made $200 how much did he charge per bushel
Weeds Weeds are plants that grow where they are not wanted. A plant may be a weed growing in one location and not a weed in another.
Negative affects of weeds Weeds are a very problematic matter for many things from basic gardening to agricultural crop production. Weeds lower the yield of many crops by competing for water, nutrients, light, and space. One wild mustard plant can remove as much nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil as two oat plants….decrease the amount of nutrients available for crops or natives.
Indirect effects of weeds If cows eat weeds such as wild garlic or bitter sneezeweed the milk will have an unpleasant odor and taste. Weeds can stain the lint of cotton, causing the lint to be graded lower. Interfere with harvest causing delays and greater harvest loss. They often necessitate drying of harvested grain…increasing cost of production
How to identify the problem Careful identification of a problem is essential before control practices can be used. Some insect damage may appear to be a disease, especially if no visible insects are present. Nutrient problems may also mimic diseases. Herbicide damage resulting from misapplication of chemicals also can be mistaken for other problems.
Plant damage Abiotic…..nonlivingBiotic…..living Anything nonliving that causes damage to a plant. Wind Rain (lack of or too much) Sun (lack of or too much) Lawn mowing equipment Rocks Heat Nutrients (lack of or too much) Anything living that causes damage to a plant. Bacteria Virus Fungus Insects Humans Animals
Biotic damage Insects Sucking Misshapen leaves or flower petals. Younger leaves will appeared curled or puckered. Thinning of leaf tissue Look on underside of leaf to locate these insects. Insert their mouth parts into plant tissue and suck out the sugars created during photosynthesis. Chewing Chewed leaves and flowers It is often easy to identify insect damage because they will be present on the plant. In some cases the insect may not be present you must rely on damage created.
Biotic damage Insects Boring Boring into stems, fruits, and leaves. Disrupts plants ability to transport water. You may suspect the presence of boring insects if you see small accumulations of sawdust like material on plant stems or fruits. Boring damage Chewing damage Sucking damage
Biotic: Disease MethodsSymptoms Attack leaf surface and limit the plants ability to carry on photosynthesis. Production of substances that clog plant tissues that transport water and nutrients. Production of toxins that kill the plant or replace plant tissue with their own. Mushroom like growth around trunk or leaves Grayish mildewy apperance Spots on leaves, flowers, and fruits Sudden wilting or death of plant Stunted growth
Abiotic NutrientsPesticides Yellowing of leaves starting from the bottom Stunted growth This can often look like disease or damage from sucking plants. To confirm a nutrient problem double check for presence of insects or substance on leaves that may be a mold or fungus.
Beneficial InsectsControl Green lacewings Ladybugs Praying mantis Ground beetles Parasitic nematodes Trichogramma wasp Seedhead weevils Aphids, mealy bugs, thrips, spider mites Aphids, Colorado potato beetle Almost any insect Catapillars that attack trees and shrubs. Grubs, beetles, cutworms, army worms Corn borer, cabbage looper, other worms Weeds
Sign Vs. Symptoms A sign is the actual identification of the problem causing agent…actual insect A symptom is an indicator that something is wrong with your plant…..chewed leaves, mildew, fungus
What questions to ask yourself What species is this plant? Are leaves normally discolored? Does the plant normally have weird bumps
Abiotic: non-uniformBiotic: uniform Generally uniform damage is cause by non living things Even Looks the same Initial damage is total damage Appears on exposed leaves…not shaded ones Develop quickly Non-uniform damage is caused by living factors. Scattered No pattern Spreads from point of attack
Aphids Are tiny green or black sticky blips on the stems of annuals, perennials, and woody ornamentals. These minute insects in large numbers have the capability to kill any plant by sucking out all the plant sap, thereby reducing the plant's ability to utilize food. Aphids secret a honey-like substance, and ants on your plants is a good indication of aphid infestation, as seen in photo 1
Caterpillar regardless of how beautiful the resulting butterfly or moth may be, if you have caterpillars in your garden, you'll have chewed leaves! When you notice this type of chew-damage, inspect the leaves just beneath the affected leaves. If you see little black dots of poop, you have caterpillar damage. Earwigs also cause similar damage by chewing the leaves and blossoms of low-growing flowers and vegetables.
Grasshoppers: these voracious eaters can consume their own weight in food in 16 hours. Leaf damage is quite distinctive, as they only eat the flesh between the veins and stems, leaving a skeleton. Leafminers: distinctive tunneling between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf shows up as light-colored trails. The leaves eventually turn brown and shrivel.
Entry task Use your information collected yesterday and describe the difference between damage caused by an insect that chews and an insect that sucks……how do they look different?
Entry task What is wrong with this picture. Write three negative ways that Kudzu (plant in picture) affects this ecosystem